ဘီလူးမ်ား သားလုပြဲ ၊ ေဌးလြင္ဦး

15.3.2013

ရာဇ၀င္မွာ ဘီလူးမ သားလုပြဲ ဆိုတာပဲ ရွိပါတယ္။ လူသားမိခင္အရင္းနဲ႔ လူသားကို စားခ်င္တဲ့ ဘီလူးမက လူဟန္ေဆာင္ၿပီး- သားကို လုတဲ့ပြဲပါ။ ဒီမွာ ရာဇ၀င္လာ ပညာရွိသုခမိန္ မေဟာ္ သဓာက- ဘယ္သူဟာ မိခင္ အရင္း ျဖစ္သလဲ- “ကေလးကို ရေအာင္လုႏိုင္သူက ကေလးကို ယူေစ”လို႔ ေျပာၿပီး သားကို လုခိုင္း လုိက္တယ္။ မိခင္လို႔ ဆိုသူႏွစ္ဦး သားေလးကို အၿပိဳင္ ဆြဲလုေတာ့- မိခင္အရင္းက သားေလးနာသြားမွာ စိုးရိမ္စိတ္နဲ႔ လက္ လႊတ္ အေလွ်ာ့ေပးလိုက္ ခဲ့တယ္။- (သားကို ရမယ္- မရမယ္ဆိုတာ က ေနာက္ ကိစၥ၊ ေလာေလာဆယ္ သားေလး ကို ေျခက တစ္ေယာက္ဆြဲ၊ ေခါင္းက တစ္ေယာက္ ဆြဲ- ႏွစ္ပိုင္းျပတ္- ေသ သြားမွာက လတ္တစ္ေလာ ကိစၥ ျဖစ္ ေနခိုက္- မိခင္အရင္းက သားေလးကို ကရုဏာတစ္ကယ္ရွိၿပီး- လက္လႊတ္ေပးလိုက္ခဲ့ တာပါ။)- ဒီမွာ သုခမိန္ မေဟာ္သဓာဟာ မိခင္ အရင္းရဲ႔ စိတ္ကို သိျမင္ခြင့္ရခဲ့ပါတယ္။-

တိုင္းျပည္တစ္ခုမွာၿပည္သူလူထုဆိုတာသားသမီးေတြၿဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ႏိုင္ငံကိုဦးေဆာင္တဲ့ ေခါင္း

ေဆာင္ေတြ မိဘ မ်ား သဖြယ္ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။- ျပည္သူလူထုရဲ႔ ဘ၀မ်ား အတြက္ မိဘေတြမွာ တာ၀န္ ရွိေနပါတယ္-။

ဒီပြဲေတြမွာ- (၁) ရခိုင္နယ္မွာ ၿဖစ္ေနတဲ့ ေဒသခံ မူလဘူတ လူမ်ိဳး မ်ားကို မ်ိဳးတံုး သုတ္သင္တဲ့ ပြဲမွာ-၊ ပါ၀င္ ပတ္ သက္သူေတြ၊ ႏိုင္ငံေရး ေခါင္းေဆာင္ေတြ၊ အတိုက္ အခံေတြ၊ အားလံုးက မ်က္ကန္း မ်ိဳးခ်စ္မ်ား ၿငိဳျငင္ သြားမလား ဆိုၿပီး ၿဖစ္ေစ-၊ သူတို႔ကိုယ္တိုင္က သူတို႔နဲ႔ ဘာသာမ တူရင္ ရန္သူဆိုတဲ့ က်ဥ္းေျမာင္းတဲ့ အျမင္နဲ႔ မလိုမုန္း ထား မႈေၾကာင့္ျဖစ္ေစ-၊ ႀကီးႏိုင္ငယ္ညႇင္း ၀ါဒကိုသာ အားေပး ခဲ့တယ္။ ေထာက္ခံခဲ့တယ္။ ဆက္လက္ၿပီး လည္း မ်ိဳးတံုး ပေပ်ာက္ သြားေစ ဘို႔ ဆက္လက္ ႀကံစည္ေန ဆဲျဖစ္ေနတယ္။

(၂) ကခ်င္နယ္က ကိစၥ-၊ ဒီကိစၥမွာလည္း မ်က္ကန္း မ်ိဳးခ်စ္မ်ား၊ ႏိုင္ငံေရး သမားမ်ား၊ အတိုက္ အခံမ်ား ကိုယ္တုိင္ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး ရလာေစဘို႔ ထဲထဲ၀င္၀င္-၊ ေစတနာထားၿပီး ပါ၀င္ ပတ္သက္မႈ မရွိဘဲ ရူး ခ်င္ေယာင္ေဆာင္ေနတာ ကို ၿမင္ေန ရပါတယ္။ မေကာင္း တတ္လို႔ အသက္မပါတဲ့ မ်က္ႏွာနဲ႔ နည္းနည္း ပါး ပါး သံေယာင္ လိုက္ေျပာတာက လြဲ ႏွလံုးသားထဲမွာ ကခ်င္ေတြ မ်ိဳးျပဳတ္ သြားပါေစလို႔ အမူအယာ မ်ားကို ကမၻာ တစ္၀ွမ္းက သိျမင္ေလာက္   ေအာင္   ေဖၚျပေန  ပါတယ္။

(၃)ေနာက္ဆံုး ဗမာ-ဗမာခ်င္း ဆင္းရဲေတာင္သူမ်ားနဲ႔ အက်ိဳး စီးပြား၀ါဒီမ်ား ၿဖစ္တဲ့ လက္ ပန္းေတာင္းေတာင္ ကိစၥ မွာလည္း ၿပသနာႀကီး ေပါက္ကြဲသြားမွာ စိုးလို႔- ၾကားက၀င္ၿပီး ၿဖန္ေျဖ ဟန္ေဆာင္ေပးျခင္း က လြဲ-၊ လက္ေတြ႔ မွာ မိမိ အာဏာ လက္လြတ္ သြားမွာကို ေၾကာက္ၿပီး ဆင္း ရဲေတာင္ သူမ်ားကို စြန္႔ပစ္ခဲ့ တာ ကိုပဲ ေတြ႔လိုက္ရပါ ေတာ့တယ္။ ဒီမွာ ၀င္ေရာက္   ျဖန္ေျဖေပးျခင္း ဆိုတာလည္း- လက္လြန္သြားတာကို ခံရသူမ်ားဘက္ က ေသြးပူ ေနခိုက္ လက္တံု႔ျပန္မႈေတြ ႀကီးသြားမွာ စိုးလို႔ ေသြးေအး သြားေစေအာင္ ေခ်ာ့ သိပ္လိုက္တဲ့ သေဘာ မွ်သာ ျဖစ္ ခဲ့ၿပီး- ေသြးေအး သြားတဲ့အခါ-၊ “နင္က လြန္တာကိုး- ခံရမွာေပါ့” ဆိုတဲ့ သေဘာနဲ႔- ဆင္းရဲျပည္သူမ်ား ႏွိပ္ကြပ္ ခံလိုက္ရတာကိုက အျပစ္ ရွိလို႔ ခံရတာလို႔ အျပစ္ပင္ ဆုိတဲ့ သေဘာျဖစ္ေနပါေတာ့တယ္။

ျဖစ္ပ်က္သမွ်ကို ျပန္လည္ သံုးသပ္ရင္ေတာ့–၊ ျပည္သူလူထုႀကီးတစ္ရပ္လံုးကို အာဏာကိုသာ မက္ေမာ ေန တဲ့ ဘီလူးအုပ္ႀကီး ၀ိုင္းလုသလို ျဖစ္ေနၿပီ။ သက္ညႇာ ကရုဏာထားမယ့္ မိဘ အစစ္ ဆိုတာ မရွိေတာ့ တာ ေသခ်ာေနတယ္။ ေသခ်င္တဲ့အေကာင္ေသ၊ မ်ိဳးျပဳတ္ခ်င္တဲ့ အုပ္စုျပဳတ္၊ ငါတို႔ကေတာ့ အသားရရ၊ အရိုးရရ ၀ိုင္းဆြဲမွာပဲ ဆိုတဲ့ အေျဖက ထင္ရွားလာပါတယ္။

အတိုက္အခံ ႏိုင္ငံေရး အုပ္စုက ေကာင္းပါတယ္။ မတတ္သာလို႔ ႏိုင္ငံေရးကြက္ ၀င္ကစားတာပါ ဆိုတဲ့ အေျဖက တစ္ကယ္ခံရတဲ့ လူထုႀကီး တစ္ရပ္လံုး ျမန္မာတစ္ျပည္လံုးအတြက္ လံုေလာက္တဲ့ အေျဖမဟုတ္ ပါ။ အခုခံရတာ အုပ္စု သံုးစု အေပါင္း ဧရာ၀တီတိုင္းက လယ္သမားေတြ ျဖစ္ ကုန္ၿပီ။ ေနာက္ထပ္ဘယ္ သူေတြ ခံရဦးမလဲ- ဘယ္လို စိတ္ခ်လို႔ ရႏိုင္မလဲ။ လူအားလံုးက ငါ့အလွည့္ ငါတို႔ အလွည့္ ဘယ္ေတာ့လာမလဲ ဆိုတဲ့ ေၾကာက္ရြံ႔ စိတ္နဲ႔သာ အသက္ရွင္ေနရတဲ့ ဘ၀မ်ိဳးကို ေရာက္ေနပါၿပီ။

ႀကံ႔ဖြံ႔က ကစားတာကို အတိုက္အခံမ်ား ခံေနရတယ္ ဆိုတဲ့ အေျဖက အတိုက္အခံမ်ားရဲ႔ ဂုဏ္သိကၡာကို ပိုၿပီး ထိခိုက္ေစပါတယ္။ အဲ့ဒီ စကားက အတိုက္အခံမ်ား သည္ ႏိုင္ငံေရး ပညာ၊ ႏုိင္ငံေရး ပရိယာယ္မွာ ႀကံ႔ဖြံ႔ထက္ အင္မတန္ ညံ့ဖ်င္းေၾကာင္း ၀န္ခံရာေရာက္ေနပါတယ္။ အင္မတန္ ညံ့ဖ်င္းတဲ့ အုပ္စုႀကီး လက္ထဲကို ႏုိင္ငံေတာ္ အာဏာ ဘယ္လို အပ္ႏိုင္မလဲ ဆိုတဲ့ ေမးခြန္းက ဆက္လက္ ရွိေနပါတယ္။

အာဏာငမ္းငမ္းမက္ေနတဲ့ ႏိုင္ငံေရးသမား ဘီလူးအႀကီးမ်ားရဲ႔လက္ထဲမွာ မိမိတို႔ ဘ၀မ်ား ဘယ္လို သက္သာ မလဲ ဆိုတာကိုပဲ ၿပည္သူေတြ လိမၼာပါးနပ္စြာ ဆင္ျခင္ဘို႔ လိုေနပါၿပီ။ မိမိတို႔ကို ကာ ကြယ္ေစာင့္ေရွာက္ေပးမယ့္ မိဘႏွင့္တူေသာ ေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ား မရွိတဲ့ ဘ၀မွာ ျပည္သူေတြ ဟာ ကိုယ့္ အသိ နဲ႔ ကိုယ္ ညီၫြတ္ခ်စ္ခင္ေအာင္ ေနႏိုင္ဘို႔သား ႀကိဳးစားႏိုင္မွ အနည္းငယ္ သက္သာလာႏိုင္ဘြယ္ ရွိေန ပါတယ္။ ျပည္သူတစ္ရပ္လံုး လိမၼာပါးနပ္ ၾကဘို႔ကိုပဲ အႀကံေပးလို ပါတယ္။

ေဌးလြင္ဦး
ျမန္မာ မြတ္ဆလင္ တန္းတူညီမွ် လႈပ္ရွားေဆာင္ရြက္မႈ အဖြဲ႔
အေမရိကန္ ျပည္ေထာင္စု

ရခုိင္အစြန္းေရာက္မ်ားမွ ရုိဟင္ဂ်ာႏွင့္ကမန္မြတ္စလင္မ်ားအား မတ္လႏွင့္ဧၿပီလတြင္ ထပ္မံ သတ္ျဖတ္ရန္စီစဥ္ေနသည္ကုိအတိအက်သတင္းရရွိထား

ႏႈိးေဆာ္စာ – ရခုိင္အစြန္းေရာက္မ်ားမွ ရုိဟင္ဂ်ာႏွင့္ကမန္မြတ္စလင္မ်ားအား မတ္လႏွင့္ဧၿပီလတြင္ ထပ္မံ သတ္ျဖတ္ရန္စီစဥ္ေနသည္ကုိအတိအက်သတင္းရရွိထား၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္ ဇြန္လဆန္းပုိင္းတြင္ ရခုိင္ျပည္နယ္၊ ေမာင္ေတာၿမဳိ႕နယ္၊ ရေသ့ေတာင္ၿမဳိ႕နယ္ႏွင့္စစ္ေတြ ၿမဳိ႕နယ္မ်ားတြင္ ျဖစ္ပြားခဲ့ေသာအၾကမ္းဖက္မႈမ်ားေၾကာင့္ ရုိဟင္ဂ်ာမြတ္စလင္မ်ားႏွင့္ကမန္မြတ္စလင္ အမ်ားအျပားအသက္ဆုံးရွဴံးခဲ့ရသည္။

ရုိဟင္ဂ်ာလူမ်ဳိးမ်ားတြင္လက္နက္ကုိင္အဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ား မရွိေသာ္ျငာ းလည္း၊ ျပည္တြင္း သတင္းဌာန မ်ား   ႏွင့္ႏုိင္ ငံေတာ္သမၼတရုံးညြန္ၾကားေရးမွဴး မွဴးေဇာ္ (ခ) ဗုိလ္မွဴးေဟာင္းေဇာ္ေဌး၏ Facebook စာ မ်က္ ႏွာတုိ႔မွ ရခုိင္ျပည္နယ္ကုိရုိဟင္ဂ်ာမ်ားသိမ္းပုိက္ေနသေယာင္ႏွင့္ ရုိဟင္ဂ်ာမ်ားမွ ရခုိင္ လူမ်ဳိး မ်ား ကုိ လူမ်ဳိးတုန္းသတ္ျဖတ္ေနသေယာင္၀ါဒျဖန္႔ခ်ီ၍ အေျခအေနမ်ားကုိပုိမုိတင္းမာေအာင္ျပဳလုပ္ ခဲ့ၿပီး ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္ ေအာက္တုိဘာလတြင္ဒုတိယအႀကိမ္အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈမ်ား ရခုိင္ျပည္နယ္ အ၀န္း တြင္ျဖစ္ေပၚခဲ့ သည္။

ႏုိင္ငံေတာ္အစုိးရမွ ၁၈၀ ခန္႔ေသဆုံးသည္ဟုထုတ္ျပန္ခဲ့ေသာ္လည္း အမွန္တကယ္အသက္ဆုံးရွဴံးခဲ့ ရသူပမာဏမွာလြန္စြာမ်ားျပားခဲ့သည္။ ထုိ႔အျပင္အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈမ်ားကုိတိမ္းေရွာင္ခဲ့သူအမ်ားအျပားပင္ လယ္ျပင္ တြင္အသက္ဆုံးရွဴံးခဲ့ရသည္။ အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈမ်ားေၾကာင့္ အျပစ္မဲ့ ၁၂၀၀၀၀ ခန္႔အုိးမဲ့ အိမ္မဲ့ ျဖစ္ခဲ့ ရၿပီး၊ ယခုအခါ ဘက္ေပါင္းစုံမွအေျခအေနဆုိးရြားေသာဒုကၡသည္ စခန္းမ်ား၌ေန ထုိင္ေနၾကရ သည္။

အဆုိပါဒုကၡသည္မ်ားအားႏုိင္ငံတကာအဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ားမွတတ္ႏုိင္သေရြ႕ကူညီေပးလ်က္ရွိရာတူရ ကီ   ႏုိင္ ငံ မွတန္ဖုိးနည္းအိမ္ရာမ်ားေဆာက္လုပ္ေပးရန္ ျမန္မာအစုိးရႏွင့္ပူးေပါင္း၍စီစဥ္ခဲ့သည္။ သုိ႔ေသာ္ လည္း ေဒသခံရခုိင္အစြန္းေရာက္အခ်ဳိ႕မွအဆုိပါအစီအစဥ္အားလက္မခံႏုိင္ေၾကာင္းမတ္လ (၇) ရက္ေန႔ တြင္ စစ္ေတြၿမဳိ႕ႏွင့္အျခားၿမဳိ႕မ်ားတြင္ဆႏၵျပပြဲျပဳလုပ္၍ အစီအစဥ္အားဖ်က္သိမ္းေပးရန္ေတာင္း ဆုိခဲ့ၾက သည္။

လြန္ခဲ့သည့္ေဖေဖာ္၀ါရီလမွစ၍ မတ္လႏွင့္ဧၿပီလ ျမန္မာ့ရုိးရာသႀကၤန္ပြဲမတုိင္မွီတတိယအႀကိမ္အၾကမ္း ဖက္မႈမ်ားျဖစ္ပြားမည္ဟုသတင္းမ်ားပ်ံ႕ႏွံ႔လ်က္ရွိခဲ့သည္။ထုိသုိ႔သတင္းပ်ံ႕ႏွံ႔မႈမ်ားမွန္ကန္မႈရွိ/မရွိ ကုိ   ေလ့     လာ  စုံစမ္းခဲ့ရာ မတ္လ ေနာက္ဆုံးပတ္တြင္တစ္ႀကိမ္ႏွင့္ ဧၿပီလ ဒုတိယပတ္တြင္တစ္ႀကိမ္ ရခုိင္ ျပည္ နယ္အတြင္းရွိမြတ္စလင္မ်ားအားသတ္ျဖတ္ရန္ အစြန္းေရာက္အဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ားမွအစီအစဥ္ေရး ဆြဲ ထားၿပီးျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း RB News မွခုိင္လုံသည့္သတင္းရပ္ကြက္မ်ားမွ တိက်မွန္ကန္ေသာသတင္းမ်ား ရရွိထားၿပီးျဖစ္သည္။

ရခုိင္ျပည္နယ္ေျမာက္ပုိင္း၊ ေမာင္ေတာၿမဳိ႕နယ္အႏွံ႔အျပားရွိ နတလေက်းရြာမ်ားတြင္ ေသနတ္ပစ္နည္း၊ ဓါးရွည္ခုတ္နည္းမ်ားကုိလည္းလြန္ခဲ့သည့္ေဖေဖာ္၀ါရီလမွစတင္၍သင္တန္းမ်ားေပးေနသည္ ကုိ မ်က္   ျမင္ သက္ေသ မ်ားမွ RB News သုိ႔ေျပာၾကားခဲ့သည္။ ထုိ႔အျပင္ စစ္ေတြၿမဳိ႕ရွိ လုံထိန္းတပ္ဖြဲ႔၀င္ ၃၀၀ ခန္႔မွာ ဗမာလူမ်ဳိးမ်ားျဖစ္ခဲ့ၿပီး၊ ၎လုံထိန္းတပ္ဖြဲ႔၀င္မ်ားကုိ ရခုိင္လူမ်ဳိးလုံထိန္းတပ္ဖြဲ႔၀င္မ်ားျဖင့္လဲ လွယ္ လုိက္ၿပီး၊ မြမ္းမံသင္တန္းမ်ားေပးလ်က္ရွိေၾကာင္းကုိလည္း ခုိင္မာသည့္သတင္းရပ္ကြက္မ်ားမွ ရရွိ ထားၿပီးျဖစ္သည္။

မတ္လ ေနာက္ဆုံးပတ္တြင္စတင္မည့္အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈကုိ ရခုိင္လူမ်ဳိးမ်ားအၾကားသိရွိေနၿပီျဖစ္ေသာ္ လည္း   ရုိဟင္ဂ်ာႏွင့္ကမန္မြတ္စလင္မ်ားမွာ သတင္းအစအနပင္မရရွိေသးဘဲ၊ ေရွာင္တခင္သတ္ျဖတ္ခံ ရမည့္ အေျခအေနတြင္ရွိေနပါသည္။ ယခင္ကဲ့သုိ႔ပင္ ျပည္တြင္းသတင္းဌာနမ်ားႏွင့္ ႏုိင္ငံေတာ္ သမၼတ ရုံးညြန္ ၾကားေရးမွဴး – မွဴးေဇာ္ (ခ) ဗုိလ္မွဴးေဟာင္းေဇာ္ေဌးတုိ႔မွ မဟုတ္မမွန္လုပ္ၾကံ၍၀ါဒျဖန္႔ခ်ီ မႈမ်ား ထပ္မံျပဳ လုပ္ရန္စီစဥ္ထားသည္ကုိလည္း သိရွိထားပါသည္။

သို႔ျဖစ္ပါ၍ ႏုိင္ငံေရးအျမတ္ထုတ္ခ်င္သူလူတစ္စုေၾကာင့္ အျပစ္မဲ့ျပည္သူမ်ားအသက္ဆုံးရွဴံးမႈႏွင့္အုိး မဲ့အိမ္ မဲ့ျဖစ္ ပြားမႈအားလုံးကုိႀကဳိတင္ကာကြယ္ရန္ေမွ်ာ္ကုိးလ်က္ ဤႏႈိးေဆာ္စာအား ျပည္ေထာင္စု သမၼတျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံေတာ္အစုိးရႏွင့္ ႏုိင္ငံတကာအစုိးရမ်ားမွေလးနက္စြာစဥ္းစား၍၊ အေျခအေနမ်ားကုိ အခ်ိန္မွီထိန္းသိမ္းေပးပါရန္၊ ေလးစားစြာတုိက္တြန္းႏႈိးေဆာ္အပ္ပါသည္။

RB News Team
၂၀၁၃ မတ္လ (၈)

က်ဳိက္ထုိႏွင့္ ဘီးလင္းတြင္ ၉၆၉ တရားပြဲအၿပီး မြတ္စလင္မ္ဆုိင္မ်ား ဖ်က္ဆီးခံရ

မတ္ ၉၊ ၂၀၁၃
M-Media
ေအးေမာင္

က်ဳိက္ထုိ ။       ။ က်ဳိက္ထုိၿမိဳ႕၌ မေန႔ည (၈-၃-၂၀၁၃)ေန႔ညက ျပဳလုပ္ေသာ ဘုန္းႀကီးတရားပြဲအၿပီး တြင္   မြတ္ စလင္မ္ ဆိုင္တခ်ဳိ႕မွ ခုံမ်ား ႐ိုက္ႏွက္ဖ်က္ဆီးခံရေၾကာင္းသတင္း ရ႐ွိသည္။

ယမန္ေန႔ညပိုင္း ဘုန္းႀကီးတရားပြဲအၿပီးတြင္ မြတ္စလင္မ္ပိုင္ ဆုိင္တခ်ဳိ႕မွခုံမ်ားအား ၉၆၉ အဖြဲ႕၀င္မ်ားမွ မင္းမဲ့စ႐ိုက္ျဖင့္ ၀ိုင္း၀န္း႐ိုက္ခ်ဳိးခဲ့ၾကေၾကာင္း၊ ယင္းကဲ့သုိ႔ ဖ်က္ဆီးမႈမ်ားမွာ က်ဳိက္ထုိ တစ္ၿမိဳ႕တည္းတြင္ မဟုတ္ဘဲ မြန္ျပည္နယ္႐ွိ ၿမိဳ႕ႀကီးတခ်ဳိ႕တြင္ ျပဳလုပ္ေနေၾကာင္း၊ လြန္ခဲ့ေသာ ၃-ရက္ခန္႔ကလည္း မြန္ျပည္နယ္ ဘီလင္းၿမိဳ႕တြင္ အလားတူ ဖ်က္ဆီးမႈမ်ဳိး႐ွိခဲ့ေၾကာင္းသိရသည္။

ဘီးလင္းၿမိဳ႕႐ွိ ၉၆၉ အဖြဲ႕သည္ ဘုန္းႀကီးက ဦးေဆာင္ဖြဲ႕စည္းထားၿပီး အရပ္သားမ်ားပါ၀င္ေၾကာင္း၊ တရားပြဲမ်ား ျပဳလုပ္ရာတြင္လည္း တရားပြဲတြင္ မြတ္စလင္မ္ မုန္းတီးေရးကုိသာ ေဟာေျပာေလ့႐ွိၿပီး တရားပြဲၿပီးသည္ႏွင့္ မြတ္စလင္မ္ပိုင္မ်ားကုိ ဖ်က္ဆီးေလ့႐ွိလာေၾကာင္း၊ ၉၆၉-အဖြဲ႕သည္ ႐ွပ္အကၤ် ီ အျဖဴေရာင္ေပၚတြင္ ၉၆၉ တံဆိပ္႐ိုက္ ၀တ္စုံဆင္တူ ၀တ္ဆင္၍ ဥပေဒမဲ့ မင္းမဲ့စ႐ိုက္မ်ား ျပဳ လုပ္ေနေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။

ဘီးလင္းၿမိဳ႕တြင္ မြတ္စလင္မ္မုန္းတီးေရး လႈံ႕ေဆာ္စာမ်ား၊ မုန္းတီးေရး တရားပြဲမ်ားကုိ ျပဳလုပ္ၿပီး မုန္း တီးေရး တရားေခြမ်ားကုိ ျဖန္႔ေ၀ေနၾကသည္မွာ လအတန္ၾကာၿပီျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း၊ မြတ္စလင္မ္ မုန္းတီးေရး လႈံ႕ေဆာ္မႈမ်ားအတြက္ ဘီးလင္းၿမိဳ႕႐ွိ မြတ္စလင္မ္လူႀကီးမ်ားမွ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္အထိ တင္ျပ အစီရင္ခံ ထားေၾကာင္း၊ မ်ဳိးဆက္သစ္ ေက်ာင္းသားမ်ားအဖြဲ႕၊ ျပည္နယ္ သာသနာေရးရာ ၀န္ႀကီးဌာန၊ မြန္ျပည္ နယ္ လႊတ္ေတာ္ ကုိယ္စားလွယ္(၂)ဦး၊ အစၥလာမ္သာသနာေရးရာေကာင္စီ၊ မအဖအဖြဲ႕ႏွင့္ ဌာနဆုိင္ ရာအဆင့္ဆင့္ တုိ႔သုိ႔ တင္ျပအေၾကာင္းၾကား ထားေသာ္လည္း ယင္း မုန္းတီးေရး လႈံ႕ေဆာ္မႈမ်ား အား မည္သူမွ ဟန္႔တားႏိုင္ျခင္းမ႐ွိေၾကာင္း၊ မည္သည့္အတြက္ေၾကာင့္ တရားဥပေဒ စုိးမုိးေရး ကုိ မျပဳလုပ္ သည္ကုိ စဥ္းစား၍မရေၾကာင္း က်ဳိက္ထုိႏွင့္ ဘီးလင္းၿမိဳ႕ခံမွ M-Media ကုိ ေျပာျပ လာပါတယ္။

အာဏာရွင္ စစ္အစိုးရလက္ထက္ ရာဇ၀တ္မွဳမ်ားကို ရင္ဆုိင္ေျဖရွင္းရမည္ဟု ကြင္တာနာ ေျပာၾကား

M-Media

မတ္လ ၉ ရက္၊ ၂၀၁၃

ရိုက္တာ

Handout of Quintana, U.N. special envoy on human rights in Myanmar, meets with Myanmar pro-democracy leader Suu Kyi in Yangon

ကုလ ကိုယ္စားလွယ္ ကြင္တာနာႏွင့္ အတိုက္အခံေခါင္းေဆာင္ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္

 

ျမန္မာအရပ္သားအစိုးရေရာ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္ေခါင္းေဆာင္တဲ့ အတိုက္အခံပါတီတို႔ ႏွစ္ဘက္ စလံုး က စစ္အစိုးရက်ဴးလြန္ခဲ့တဲ့ ရာဇ၀တ္မွဳေတြ ကို ထုတ္ေဖာ္တင္ျပဖို႔ လက္ရွိတြင္ခြန္အားမရွိေၾကာင္း ကုလစံုစမ္းေရးကုိယ္စားလွယ္က ေသာၾကာေန႔တြင္ ေျပာခဲ့တယ္လို႔ ရိုက္တာသတင္းတစ္ရပ္ က ေဖာ္ျပ လိုက္ပါတယ္။

 

ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံရဲ႕ ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲေရးလုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ၾကီး တာရွည္တည္ျမဲဖို႔နဲ႔ ျမန္မာျပည္ရဲ႕ (ဒဏ္ရာအနာ တရေတြ ကို) ကုစားဖို႔အတြက္ေတာ့ ရာစုႏွစ္ေပါင္း မ်ားစြာ က်ဴးလြန္ေဖာက္ျပန္ခဲ့တဲ့ အမွဳတြဲၾကီးအတြက္ တာ၀န္ခံမွဳရွိရမယ္ လို႔ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံဆိုင္ရာ ကုလသမဂၢ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးကိုယ္စားလွယ္ တိုမတ္စ္ အိုဂ်ီယာ ကြင္တာနာက ေျပာခဲ့တာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ျမန္မာစစ္တပ္နဲ႕ ရဲတပ္ဖြဲ႕ကေတာ့ အဓမၼေစခိုင္းမွဳေတြ၊ လူနည္းစု လူမ်ိဳးျခားအုပ္စုေတြနဲ႕ တုိင္းရင္း သားေတြ ကို ဖိနွိပ္မွဳ၊ သတ္ျဖတ္မွဳ၊ ညႇဥ္းပမ္းႏွိပ္ စက္ မွဳစတာေတြ က်ဴးလြန္ခဲ့တယ္လို႔ စြပ္စြဲခံေန ရပါ တယ္။

အမွန္တရားေပၚေပါက္ဖို႔ စံုစမ္းေရးေကာ္မရွင္ကိစၥကိုသာမက အေရးယူေဆာင္ရြက္ဖို႔ ကိစၥေတြနဲ႔ပတ္ သတ္ၿပီး ကြင္တာနာကို ေမးျမန္းခဲ့ရာမွာ – “ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ အမွန္ တကယ္ ျဖစ္ေနတာကေတာ့ဗ်ာ၊ ဒီကိစၥ ကို ဘယ္သူေတြကမွ ေဆာင္ရြက္လုပ္ကိုင္မယ္ဆိုၿပီး အစီအစဥ္ဆြဲတာမ်ိဳးမရွိဘူး။ အစိုးရကလည္း အစီအစဥ္မရွိ ဘူး၊ တျခားနိုင္ငံေရးပါတီေတြမွာလည္း အစီအစဥ္မရွိသလို၊ လူနည္းစု  မွာလည္း  ” လို႔ ကြင္တာနာက ေျဖၾကားခဲ့ပါတယ္။

ကြင္တာနာက ျမန္မာအစုိးရရဲ႕ ထိပ္ပိုင္းအရာရွိေတြ ကို ေတြ႔ဆံုေဆြးေႏြးခဲ့ သလို ေဒၚစုၾကည္နဲ႔ လည္း ျပီးခဲ့တဲ့လက သူရဲ႕ေနာက္ဆံုးခရီးစဥ္ အတြင္း မွာ ေတြ႕ဆံုခဲ့ပါ တယ္လို႔ ဂ်ီနီဗာ သတင္းစာရွင္း လင္း ပြဲမွာ ေျပာျပခဲ့ပါတယ္။

ေဒၚစုၾကည္ရဲ႕ အေတြ႔အၾကံဳမဲ့ ပါတီကေတာ့ ေသာၾကာေန႔ကစၿပီး ပထမဆံုးအၾကိမ္ ႏိုင္ငံလံုးဆိုင္ရာ ကြန္ဂရက္ကို က်င္းပပါလိမ့္မယ္။ ၂၀၁၅ ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲ အၾကိဳ ျပင္ဆင္မွဳအခ်ိဳ႕ အတြက္ရည္ရြယ္ တယ္ လို႔ သိရပါတယ္။

ရခိုင္အေရးကိစၥေၾကာင့္ အခက္အခဲ အၾကပ္အတည္းေတြ ျဖစ္ေနသလို၊ ဒီမိုကေရစီ အသြင္ ကူးေျပာင္းေရး မွာလည္း ဒီကိစၥစိုးရိမ္ဖြယ္အျဖစ္ ရွိေန တယ္ လို႔ ကြင္တာနာရဲ႕ ၾကာသပေတးေန႔ က ႏွစ္ပတ္လည္အစီရင္ခံစာမွာ တစ္ခုမွာ ေဖာ္ျပထားေၾကာင္းသိရပါတယ္။

ဦးသိန္းစိန္အစိုးရအေနနဲ႔ ျပင္းထန္တဲ့ ရာဇ၀တ္မွဳေတြသာမက အစီအစဥ္တက်လုပ္ကိုင္ေဆာင္ရြက္ခဲ့တဲ့ လူအခြင့္အေရးခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မွဳစတဲ့ အမွဳတြဲေတြ ကို ရင္ဆိုင္ဖို႔ အတြက္ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ စည္းမ်ဥ္းစည္း ကမ္းေတြ (ဖိအားေပးမွဳေတြ) ရွိေနတယ္လို႔ ကြင္တာနာက ဆိုပါတယ္။

ဒါ့ျပင္သူက ဗုဒၶဘာသာထြနး္ကားတဲ့ႏုိင္ငံေတြကို ရည္ညႊန္းေျပာၾကားခဲ့ရာမွာ – ျမန္မာျပည္တြင္းမွာ ဒီလို စစ္အစိုးရက်ဴးလြန္ခဲ့တဲ့ ရာဇ၀တ္မွဳေတြ အေၾကာင္း အခုအခ်ိန္မွာ စတင္ ေဆြးေႏြးဖို႔ေတာင္မွ မျဖစ္ႏုိင္ေၾကာင္း၊ ဘာလို႔လဲဆိုရင္ ဒီလမ္းေၾကာင္းမွာ ဘာသာေရးအဖြဲ႔ေတြက ခုခံေနတဲ့ အေၾကာင္း၊ သူတို႔က ခြင့္လႊတ္ေရးေတြ၊ အနာဂတ္ကိုသာၾကည့္ၿပီး အတိတ္ကို လ်စ္လ်ဴျပဳလုိမွဳေတြ ရွိေနတယ္ဆိုတဲ့ အေၾကာင္းေတြ ကိုပါ ေျပာျပခဲ့ ပါတယ္။

ကြင္တာနာကေတာ့ ၁၉၈၀ ျပည့္လြန္ႏွစ္ေတြကမွ စစ္အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရးကေန လြတ္လပ္လာခဲ့တဲ့ အာဂ်င္ တီးနား ဇာတိျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

“ကြ်န္ေတာ္ကေတာ့ဗ်ာ၊ အတိတ္မွာျဖစ္ခဲ့တာေတြကို ကုစားဖို႔ လိုတယ္လို႔ပဲ အမွန္အကန္ယံုၾကည္ ထားတယ္။  အသြင္ကူးေျပာငး္ေရးေအာင္ျမင္ ဖို႔အတြက္ အတိတ္မွာျဖစ္ခဲ့တာေတြကို သခၤန္းစာယူဖို႔က လည္း တကယ္ကို အေရးၾကီးတယ္ဆိုတဲ့ အေၾကာင္း ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔က ထပ္ကာထပ္ ကာ ျဖန္႕ခ်ိေန ရမယ္။ အတိတ္က ျဖစ္ခဲ့တာေတြကို သခၤန္းစာယူဖို႔ ဆိုတဲ့ေနရာမွာ ဘာေတြျဖစ္ခဲ့သလဲဆိုတာ နားလည္ သေဘာေပါက္ရမယ္။ ႏွစ္ ၄၀ ေက်ာ္ေလာက္ စစ္အစိုးရက အုပ္စိုးသြားတဲ့ေနရာမွာ ဘာမွမျဖစ္ခဲ့ပါဘူးလို႔ သရုပ္ေဆာင္ေနဖို႔ မလိုဘူး။”  ဟု ကြင္တာနာက ရွင္းျပခဲ့သည္။

ျမန္မာအစိုးရက ကြင္တာနာ၏ ျမန္မာျပည္အေရးေဆာင္ရြက္မွဳလုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ကို ရပ္တန္႔ရန္ရည္ရြယ္ၿပီး ကုလလူ႔အခြင့္အေရးေကာင္စီ၏ အဖြဲ႕၀င္ႏိုင္ငံ မ်ား ကို လႊမ္းမိုးႏိုင္ဖို႔ ေလာ္ဘီ(lobby) လုပ္ေနေၾကာင္း၊ သူ၏ ျမန္မာျပည္အေရးလုပ္ငန္းစဥ္မွာ ၂၀၁၄ ေမလအထိ ၾကာျမင့္မည္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း၊ သူ႔အေန နဲ႔ ကေတာ့ ဆက္လက္စံုစမ္းစစ္ေဆးဖို႔ လိုအပ္ေနတယ္လို႔ ခံစားရေၾကာင္း ကြင္တာနာ က ေျပာျပ ခဲ့ပါတယ္။

၄င္းျပင္သူက ႏုိင္ငံတကာစီးပြားေရးလုပ္ငန္းေတြအေနနဲ႔ ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ စီးပြားေရးလုပ္ဖို႔ စိတ္၀င္း စား မွဳေတြ ရွိေနေၾကာင္း၊ သူတို႔အေနနဲ႔ အျပဳ သေဘာေဆာင္တဲ့ ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္ေတြနဲ႔ သာ ျမန္မာျပည္တြင္း စီးပြားေရး လာေရာက္လုပ္ကိုင္ဖို႔ လိုအပ္ေၾကာင္းလည္း ေျပာဆိုခဲ့ပါတယ္။

(ရိုက္တာသတင္းဌာနမွာ စတီဖင္ နဘေဟး၏ သတင္းတင္ျပခ်က္ျဖစ္ပါသည္။)

M-Media သတင္းသံုးသပ္ခ်က္

အထက္ပါသတင္းတြင္ ပါရွိသည့္ ကြင္တာနာ၏ တင္ျပခ်က္ျဖစ္ေသာ –

“ျမန္မာအစိုးရက ကြင္တာနာ၏ ျမန္မာျပည္အေရးေဆာင္ရြက္မွဳလုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ကို ရပ္တန္႔ရန္ရည္ရြယ္ၿပီး ကုလလူ႔အခြင့္အေရးေကာင္စီ၏ အဖြဲ႕၀င္ႏိုင္ငံ မ်ား ကို လႊမ္းမိုးႏိုင္ဖို႔ ေလာ္ဘီ(lobby) လုပ္ေနေၾကာင္း၊” ဆိုသည့္ အခ်က္ကို ေတြ႔ရွိရပါသည္။ ကြင္တာနာက စစ္အစိုးရ၏ ရာဇ၀တ္မွဳမ်ားကို စစ္ေဆး အေရးယူဖို႔ ေဆာင္ရြက္လ်က္ရွိသည္ဟုလည္း သံုးသပ္ရပါသည္။

ထို႔ေၾကာင့္ ျမန္မာျပည္တြင္း လတ္တေလာေပၚေပါက္ေနသည့္ မြတ္စလင္မ္ဆန္႔က်င္ရွံဳ႕ခ်ေရးႏွင့္ ဘာ သာေရးေစာ္ကားမွဳမ်ားမွာ “ကြင္တာနာ ဖြတ္ဖြတ္” ဟူသည့္ ဗုဒၶဘာသာ သံဃာအမည္ခံ လူအုပ္စု၏   ေၾကြးေၾကာ္ သံမွ အစျပဳခဲ့သလို ထို သံဃာမ်ားကိုယ္တိုင္ဦးစီးေဆာင္ရြက္လ်က္ရွိေနေၾကာင္း သိရျပန္ ပါသည္။

ကုလတြင္ ကြင္တာနာအလိုမရွိအဆို တင္သြင္းေရးမွာ ျမန္မာအသြင္ေျပာင္းအစိုးရအတြက္ အေရး ၾကီးေန   သည့္ ကိစၥျဖစ္ေန၍ “ကြင္တာနာ ဖြတ္ဖြတ္” ေဆာင္ပုဒ္ႏွင့္ အသြင္ကူးေျပာင္းထားသည့္ အာဏာ ရအစိုးရအဖြဲ႕တို႔ ဆက္စပ္လ်က္ရွိ၊ မရွိဆိုသည္မွာ သံသယပြားဖြယ္ပင္ ျဖစ္ပါေတာ့သည္။

မင္းျပားၿမိဳ႕နယ္တြင္ ရုိဟင္ဂ်ာလူမ်ိဳး(၆)ဦး အသတ္ခံရ

ျပည္တြင္း သတင္း

ေဖေဖာ္၀ါရီ ၁၄၊ ၂၀၁၃
M-Media

မင္းျပား ။ ။ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ မင္းျပားၿမိဳ႕နယ္မွ ေပါက္ေတာၿမိဳ႕နယ္သုိ႔ ၉.၂.၂၀၁၃ တြင္ ေစ်း၀ယ္ရန္ထြက္ခြာသြားေသာ ႐ုိဟင္ဂ်ာ(၆)ဦးသည္ ၁၁.၂.၂၀၁၃ ေန႔တြင္ စက္ကဲျပင္ေက်းရြာ အနီး၌ ရခိုင္ အၾကမ္းဖက္ သမား တစ္စု၏ အၾကမ္းဖက္ သတ္ျဖတ္ျခင္းခံရေၾကာင္း သတင္းရ႐ွိသည္။

ျဖစ္ပြားပုံမွာ ၂၀၁၂ ခု ေအာက္တုိဘာလက ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္တြင္ ျဖစ္ပြားခဲ့ေသာ ဒုတိယအႀကိမ္ အၾကမ္းဖက္မွဳမ်ားေၾကာင့္ မင္းျပားၿမိဳ႕နယ္ရွိ ရုိဟင္ဂ်ာလူမ်ိဳးမ်ား အုိးမဲ့အိမ္မဲ့ဘဝသုိ႔ ေရာက္ရွိသြားၿပီး ဘက္ ေပါင္းစုံ တြင္ ဒုကၡမ်ိဳးစုံႏွင့္ႀကံဳေတြ႔ေနရသည့္ အျပင္ စားနပ္ရိကၡာအခက္ႀကံဳေနရသည္။ ထုိ႔ေၾကာင့္ မိမိ အသက္အႏၲရာယ္ကုိပင္ မငဲ့ကြက္ႏိုင္ေတာ့ပဲ မိသားစုဘဝ စား၀တ္ေနေရးအတြက္ ေစ်း၀ယ္ရန္ မင္းျပားၿမိဳ႕ နယ္ နာဂါရာ (ခ) ေဖာက္ဆဲဖာရြာမွ ႐ုိဟင္ဂ်ာ လူမ်ိဳး(၇)ေယာက္သည္ ဟြန္ဒါစက္တပ္ေလွငယ္ျဖင့္ ေပါက္ေတာၿမိဳ႕နယ္သုိ႔ ေစ်းဝယ္ရန္ မင္းျပားမွ ၉.၂.၂၀၁၃ ေန႔ ညေန ၅း၀၀နာရီခန္႔မွာ ထြက္ခြာ ခဲ့ေၾကာင္း၊ ယင္းသုိ႔ ထြက္ခြာခဲ့ၿပီးေနာက္ ၁၁.၂.၂၀၁၃ ေန႔ မနက္ ၄း၀၀ နာရီခန္႔တြင္ ေပါက္ေတာၿမိဳ႕နယ္႐ွိ ရုိဟင္ဂ်ာ လူမ်ိဳးမ်ားေနထိုင္ေသာ စစ္ကဲျပင္ေက်းရြာအနီး မေရာက္မီ ရခုိင္လူမ်ိဳး မ်ားေနထိုင္ေသာ ၾကင္ရွင္ရြာမွ ရခုိင္အၾကမ္းဖက္လူတစ္စုသည္ ယင္း႐ုိဟင္ဂ်ာမ်ား၏ ေလွငယ္ေနာက္သုိ႔ ေမာ္ဘုတ္ျဖင့္ လုိက္လာၿပီး ဓါးမ်ားႏွင့္ ခုတ္ေၾကာင္း၊ ယင္းသုိ႔ ဓါးျဖင့္ လိုက္လံခုတ္မႈေၾကာင့္ ဟြန္ဒါစက္ေလွငယ္ေပၚရွိ ရုိဟင္ဂ်ာလူမ်ိဳး(၇)ေယာက္မွ မေျပးႏိုင္ဘဲ အၾကမ္းဖက္သမားတစ္စု၏ ဖမ္းဆီးျခင္းခံခဲ့ရေၾကာင္း၊ထုိသုိ႔အဖမ္းခံေနရစဥ္တြင္ပင္ ကုိဟာဘီအာလာမ္ (ဘ)ဦးမာဘူး (၃၅)ႏွစ္သည္ စြန္႔စားၿပီး ေရထဲခုန္ဆင္း၍ ထြက္ေျပး လြတ္ေျမာက္သြားခဲ့သည္။ က်န္ေသာ ႐ုိဟင္ဂ်ာ(၆)ေယာက္မွာမူ ရခုိင္ အၾကမ္းဖက္သမားမ်ား၏ သတ္ျဖတ္မႈ ခံလိုက္ရေၾကာင္းသိရသည္။

ထုိထြက္ေျပးလြတ္ေျမာက္လာေသာ ကုိဟာဘီအလာမ္က အနီးအနားရွိ လုံၿခဳံေရးစစ္တပ္ကုိ အခ်ိန္မီသတင္းေပးပုိ႔ခဲ့ေသာ္လည္း စစ္တပ္မွအခ်ိန္မီ သြားေရာက္ အေရးယူမႈ မ႐ွိေၾကာင္းႏွင့္ အသက္ေဘးမွ လြတ္ေျမာက္လာသူ ကုိဟာဘီးအာလာမ္ ကုိလည္း ယခုအခါ စစ္တပ္မွ ဖမ္းဆီးထားေၾကာင္းသိရသည္။

ရခိုင္အၾကမ္းဖက္သမားမ်ား၏ သတ္ျဖတ္ျခင္းခံရေသာ ႐ုိဟင္ဂ်ာ(၆)ေယာက္မွာ

(၁) နာဂါရာ႐ြာမွ ႏူရုလ္အာမိန္႔ (ဘ) ႏူရ္ေဆာ္လာမ္ အသက္(၃၀)၊
(၂) နဂါရြာမွ အဒူကာဒိရ္ (ဘ) အီမာန္ဟူဆန္ အသက္(၁၈)ႏွစ္၊
(၃) လက္မ႐ြာမွ အဒူမာဘူ (ဘ) ဒိလ္မုိဟာမာတ္ အသက္(၃၀)ႏွစ္၊
(၄) ေဘလာလ္ (ဘ)ေနာ္ဘီဟူဆာန္ အသက္(၁၈)ႏွစ္
(၅)ေမာ္နီအမာတ္ (ဘ)ေဂ်ာ္လာလ္အမာတ္ အသက္(၂၂)ႏွစ္၊
(၆) ေခ်ာ္ဘူလႅာ (ဘ) မုိဟာမာတ္ဟူဆာန္ အသက္(၂၈)ႏွစ ္ တုိ႔ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္းသိရသည္။

သမီးရည္းစားၿပသနာေၾကာင္႔ ၿဖစ္ပြားေသာလူသတ္မႈကို လူမ်ိဳးစုၿပသနာအၿဖစ္ဖန္တီးၿပီးနယ္ေၿမရွိ နစကအဖြဲ႔က ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာလူမ်ိဳးမ်ားအား ၿခိမ္းေၿခာက္ ဖမ္းဆီးႏွိပ္စက္ေနၿခင္း ။

သမီးရည္းစားၿပသနာေၾကာင္႔ ၿဖစ္ပြားေသာလူသတ္မႈကို လူမ်ိဳးစုၿပသနာအၿဖစ္ဖန္တီးၿပီးနယ္ေၿမရွိ နစကအဖြဲ႔က ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာလူမ်ိဳးမ်ားအား ၿခိမ္းေၿခာက္ ဖမ္းဆီးႏွိပ္စက္ေနၿခင္း ။

ေမာင္းေတာေၿမာက္ပိုင္း ၊ အမွတ္(၅) နစက နယ္ေေၿမ ငါးခူရစခန္းပိုင္ ၿမိဳ႕သစ္ေက်းရြာအုပ္စု ၊ ေညာင္ေဘြ ေက်းရြာေန အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရးမႈး ဦးဘတင္ ေနအိမ္တြင္ ရံဖန္ရံခါ ကုန္အေရာင္း အ၀ယ္ၿပဳလုပ္ေသာ ရခိုင္ အမ်ိဳး သား ကုန္သည္ပြဲစားမ်ား တည္းခိုေနထိုင္ၾကပါသည္ ၊ ထိုကုန္သည္မ်ားထဲတြင္ စစ္ေတြၿမိဳ႕တြင္ေနထိုင္ ေသာ ကုန္သည္ပြဲစား ဦးေမာင္ေအးမွာလည္း တဦးအပါအ၀င္ ပင္ၿဖစ္ပါသည္။ ဦးေမာင္ေအး သည္ ဘဂၤလားေဒရွ္ နယ္စပ္သို႔ မႀကာခဏ ကုန္ေရာင္း၀ယ္ၿပဳ လုပ္ၿပီး ေမာင္းေတာၿမိဳ႕ ရွိ ဦးဘတင္ေနအိမ္ တြင္ပင္ အၿမဲတည္းခို ေနထိုင္ပါသည္။

ၿဖစ္စဥ္မွာ – ဦးဘတင္တြင္ အသက္(၄၀) ႏွစ္ခန္႔ရွိေသာ မေခ် အမည္ရွိ ညီမတဦးရွိပါသည္။ ၎၏ညီမ ၿဖစ္သူ မေခ်အား အမ်ိဳးေတာ္စပ္သူ ေရႊပန္းထိမ္လုပ္ငန္း လုပ္ကိုင္ေသာ ရခိုင္အမ်ိဳးသားတဦးႏွင္႔ ထိမ္းၿမား လက္ထပ္ေပးရန္ စီစဥ္ထားပါသည္။ထိုအေၾကာင္းကို ညီမၿဖစ္သူ မေခ်မွာ လက္မခံပဲ ၿငင္းဆန္ ေနၿပီး စစ္ေတြသား ဦးေမာင္ေအး ႏွင္႔သာ လက္ထပ္ထိမ္းၿမားရန္ ဆႏၵရွိေနပါသည္။ လြန္ခဲ႔ေသာ ႏွစ္အနည္းငယ္ခန္႔ကပင္ မေခ်ႏွင္႔ ဦးေမာင္ေအးတို႔ ခ်စ္ကြ်မ္း၀င္ ေနေၾကာင္းကို ဦးေမာင္ေအး ႏွင္႔ အတူတည္းခိုေနထိုင္သူ သူငယ္ခ်င္းမ်ားလည္း သိရွိၾကၿပီး မေခ်အား ေမာင္ေအး ႏွင္႔သာလွ်င္္ နီးစပ္ေစ လိုၾကပါသည္။

ေဖေဖၚ၀ါရီလ (၁၀) ရက္ ေန႔ မနက္ ၀၀ း ၁၅ နာရီခန္႔တြင္ ဦးဘတင္မွာ တေရးႏိုးလာၿပီး ေအာက္ထပ္သို႕ ဆင္းႀကည္႕ရာတြင္ ခ်ိန္းေတြ႕ေနေသာ ညီမၿဖစ္သူမေခ် ႏွင္႔ မိတ္ေဆြ ကိုေမာင္ေအး ကိုေတြ႕ရွိေသာအခါ ေဒါသ ေပါက္ကြဲ၍ စကားမ်ားရန္ၿဖစ္ၾကပါသည္။ တဖက္ႏွင္႔တဖက္စကား အၿပန္အလွန္မ်ားရာတြင္ တုတ္၊ဓါး ၊လံွ စသည္႕လက္နက္မ်ားပါ ပါ၀င္လာၿပီး ႏွစ္ဖက္ရန္ပြဲမွာ အရွိန္ အဟုန္ ၿပင္းထန္ လာရာတြင္ ဦးေမာင္ေအး၏ မိတ္ေဆြမ်ားၿဖစ္ေသာ ဦးေနလင္းေအာင္ အသက္ (၂၂) ႏွစ္ ႏွင္႔ ဦးေစာညႊန္႔ေအာင္ (၃၉)ႏွစ္ တို႔ကေရာက္ရွိ လာၿပီး ၀င္ေရာက္ ဖ်န္ေၿဖ ရန္ႀကိဳးစားရာ ဦးဘတင္မွ ေသနတ္ ၿဖင္႔ ပစ္ေဖါက္ ခုခံခဲ႔ပါသၿဖင္႔ ဦးေမာင္ေအးမွာ ရင္ဘတ္ကိုထိမွန္ခဲ႔ၿပီး အခင္းၿဖစ္ေနရာတြင္ပင္ ေသဆံုးခဲ႔ပါသည္။ ဦးေနလင္းေအာင္ ႏွင္႔ ဦးေစာညႊန္႔ေအာင္တို႔မွာလည္း ၿပင္းထန္စြာ ဒဏ္ရာအသီး သီးရရွိ ခဲ႔ပါသည္။

အထက္ပါျဖစ္ရပ္မွန္ကို မေပၚေပါက္ႏုိင္ရန္အတြက္ မသမာသူအခ်ဳိ႕ကလုပ္ၾကံဖန္တီးကာ ျဖစ္စဥ္ကိုေျပာင္းျပန္လုပ္ျပီး ရန္ကုန္အေၿခစိုက္ ရန္ကုန္တိုင္းမ္ မီဒီယာ အတြဲ (၉) ၊ အမွတ္ (၇) ၊ ေဖေဖၚ၀ါရီ လ (၁၂) ရက္ေန႔ထုတ္ စာေစာင္တြင္ ေမာင္းေတာတြင္ န.စ.က အေယာင္ေဆာင္ ဘဂၤါလီအခ်ဳိ႕ အၾကမ္းဖက္တိုက္ခိုက္ သည္ဟု ၿဖစ္ရပ္မွန္ႏွင္႔ လႊဲမွားစြာ ေဖၚၿပၿပီး လူမ်ဳိးစု(၂)စု ကို ျပသနာ ျဖစ္ေအာင္္၀ါဒျဖန္႕ လွဳံံ႕ေဆာ္ေနျခင္းျဖစ္ပါသည္။

စာေစာင္မ်ားတြင္ လုပ္ၾကံဖန္တီးေဖာ္ျပေသာ ၿဖစ္စဥ္ကို အခြင္႔ေကာင္းယူ၍ နယ္ေၿမရွိ နစကအဖြဲ႔မွ အခင္းၿဖစ္ရြာ အနီးရွိ ဒိုးတန္းေက်းရြာသား ဦးေဇာ္မူလုက္၏သားၿဖစ္သူ မာမက္ဟာရွိမ္း (ခ) မာတာရွီ (စိတ္ေ၀ဒနာရွင္) အားအသံုးခ်၍ ၿဖစ္ရပ္မွန္ႏွင္႔ လႊဲမွားေနေသာ ထြက္ဆိုခ်က္ အမ်ဳိးမ်ိဳး ကို ထြက္ဆိုခိုင္းၿပီး ထိုထြက္ဆိုခ်က္ကို အေၾကာင္းၿပဳ၍ ဒိုးတန္းေက်းရြာအုပ္စု ႏွင္႕ ေအာက္ၿပဳမေက်းရြာအုပ္စု ၊ အထက္ၿပဳမေက်းရြာအုပ္စု ၊ ေလာင္းဒံု ေက်းရြာအုပ္စု ၊ ငါးစားၾကဴးေက်းရြာအုပ္စု တို႕မွ ေအးခ်မ္းစြာေနထိုင္ေသာ အၿပစ္မဲ႔ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာလူမ်ိဳးမ်ား ကိုအမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳး ၿခိမ္းေၿခာက္ ရိုက္ႏွက္၍ ယေန႔ထိ အမ်ိဳးသား ၊အမ်ိဳးသမီး ႏွင္႔ ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ား အပါအ၀င္ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ လူမ်ိဳး အေယာက္ (၈၀) ခန္႔ကို ဖမ္းဆီးခ်ဳပ္ေႏွာင္ထားသည္ဟုသိရွိရၿပီး ၎ဖမ္းဆီးထားသူမ်ားထဲမွ (၅) ဦးကို နစက ဒုကြပ္ကဲေရးမွဴး ဗိုလ္မွဴးႀကီး စိုးလိႈင္ ႏွင္႔ နစက နယ္ေၿမမွဴး ဗိုလ္မွဴး ၀င္းမင္းလႈိင္ တို႔က ၿခိမ္းေၿခာက္ၿပီး ေငြေႀကးလက္ခံရယူကာ ၁၃. ၂. ၂၀၁၃ ရက္ေန႕တြင္ ၿပန္လည္ လႊတ္ေပးခဲ႔ေၾကာင္း သတင္းရရွိပါသည္။ ယေန႕ေနာက္ ဆက္တြဲ သတင္းအၿဖစ္ အထက္ပါေက်းရြာအသီးသီးမွ ေငြေႀကးတတ္ႏိုင္ေသာ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ လူမ်ိဳးမ်ားအား တရားခံစာရင္းမွ ပယ္ဖ်က္ေပးမည္ဟု ဆိုကာ ၿခိမ္းေၿခာက္ေငြေၾကးေတာင္းခံေနေၾကာင္း လည္း သတင္း ရရွိပါသည္။

ေမာင္ေသာ္
၁၄ ၊ ေဖေဖၚ၀ါရီလ ၊ ၂၀၁၃

Credit : Forward mail

Total Annihilation of Rohingyas from Arakan-Unmasking the Culprits and their long drawn Intention

3 February 2013

By—Shuja

1)   The Violence against Rohingyas and the Stand of Bangladesh
The pogroms of Muslim Rohingyas and Kamans in Arakan, Burma started on 8th June 2012. The continual heinous crimes against them, since then, makes their situation worse than the situation of Jews in Nazi Extermination Camps during WWII, Muslims in Bosnia in the late 90s and Hindus in Sri Lanka in the recent years. Deservingly, their plights are having enough media coverage across the globe. Many concerned Human Rights Groups are openly calling Burma to end the genocides of Rohingyas and Kamans. Being a bordering country, Bangladesh is unable to avoid the aftermaths of the violence against Rohingyas and Kamans in Arakan.
Inhumanely pushing the boats loaded with the Rohingya victims fleeing the violence back to the sea by Bangladesh authority has been drawing severe international criticism and condemnation against the country.
Bangladesh has its own reason behind the pushing back of those boats to the sea. Perhaps Bangladesh doesn’t want to exaggerate their problems by adding more people to their already booming population. According to the Bangladesh government, they are already hosting thousands of Rohingya refugees in the country, whom they are unable to repatriate to the country of their origin. Yet, so as to avoid some solvable problems, pushing human beings back to the sea to die is unacceptable to many people today. Instead, as a neighboring nation and just as what India did to Bangladesh during its independence struggle, Bangladesh has the moral responsibilities to find out the root-causes of Rohingya problems and a win-win solution for both parties. Or else, if a problem in Arakan arises, naturally Bangladesh will be unable to avoid its aftermaths.
2)     The Culprits and Criminals behind the Violence
Though it is widely believed that Burmese government for its political gains is behind the instigation of the violence against Rohingyas and Kamans, there are certainly some interest groups that have been playing behind to create violence and fuelling the fire. To these interest groups, the more the violence, the more the Arakan destabilizes. The more the Arakan destabilizes, the easier their task becomes. After all, what is the interest of these groups? Shockingly, it is something that neither General Bangladeshi nor General Burmese could have imagined. The interest of these groups is to separate Arakan from Burma and Chittagong area from Bangladesh and to unite it to make it into an independent country. In 1900, Indians’ dream of an independent India out of British colony might sound funny to British but it is a truth today. Likewise, separating Chittagong from Bangladesh might sound funny to many Bangladeshis today and but it can be a reality of tomorrow!!!
To make things worse and more worrisome, these interest groups have the strong bases and supporters both in Bangladesh and in Burma. They have been working towards achieving this goal for a long time. These interest groups are from none other than people called Rakhine in Burma and Marma, Barua and Chakma etc (in short, Jamma Hill Tribes) in Bangladesh. They have persuaded and recruited more people from other Buddhist minorities of Bangladesh on the ground of the religion. But I don’t want to squarely blame all the Buddhists in general in Bangladesh. Indeed, there are Buddhist people who have been giving their lives for the interest of Bangladesh. However, no destructive force should be neglected no matter from which community it is.
Burmese government might be well aware of the separatist tendency of these people. That’s why they not only don’t fulfill their every demand but also put many restrictions for such movement of theirs. Yet, when it comes to these Rakhines and Rohingyas, the government always favors Rakhines on account of their racial and religious affiliations. But being a democratic country with full of human rights, Bangladesh is giving them those special rights which they can never dream of in Burma. By manipulating the rights given to them, they have been working against the state policy of Bangladesh.
3)      Majority of Rakhines are Terrorists and Separatists
To many extremist leaders of Rakhines and their historians with the selective amnesia, Chittagong of Bangladesh and Arakan of Burma were one belonged to the Buddhist people of the race they themselves call Rakhine. Therefore, in the future, too, it must be one country that should belong exclusively to them. It is necessary for Rakhines to wipe out Rohingyas in particular and Muslims in general for they think that as long as there are Muslims in Arakan, they can’t have independent Arakan state.
Therefore, with the exception of few, all Burmese Rakhine political parties or armed groups, media groups, woman organizations, youth groups, academics and individuals living outside Burma or on the border are actively working against Rohingyas and Kamans as well as against the interest of Bangladesh in cooperation with the terrorist outfit of United People’s Democratic Front (UPDF) in Bangladesh. Some of them are:
Arakan League for Democracy (ALD),
Arakan Liberation Party (ALP),
Democratic Party of Arakan (DPA),
Rakhine Women Union (RWU), based in Dhaka at present,
All Arakan Student and Youth Council (AASYC), and
Dhaka based Narinjara News Agency are hostile to Rohingyas and Muslims.
As it appeared in the numerous news reports, ALP and DPA are well-known to have been involved in robbery, murder, kidnapping, tax collection, poppy cultivation, deforestation and gun running and other crimes in Bandarban area of Chittagong Hill Tracts. Besides, the separatist militants, UPDF, in the hill-tracts work in cooperation with Arakan Liberation Party (ALP). ALP is also a Rakhine Militant Group that has committing mass-killings of Rohingyas in Arakan with the help of local Rakhine extremists.
2.       Likewise, Arakan National Council (ANC), an umbrella organization of the Rakhines, in its policy declaration, rejects the Rohingya ethnicity and labels them as illegal Bengali immigrants from Bangladesh.
3. Saw Mra Raza Linn lives in Dhaka and is the President of the Dhaka based Rakhine Woman Union (RWU) and also a central executive member of ALP using the nickname Zeya Myo Line and Mra Aye Thein. She married to a Bangladeshi Buddhist living in Dhaka. Her husband’s name is U Chit Maung and one of his sisters is a selected member of parliament in Bangladesh. Despite living in Bangladesh, she works against the interest of Bangladesh and against Rohingyas. Here is her one of the baseless accusations: on 4th April 2007, in an interview with BBC Burmese Service, she said, “still Bangladeshi or Bengalis people are stealthily entering Arakan. They (Bengalis) committed rapes of many Rakhine women.” At a time when Arakan has become a hell for its own people, Rohingyas, why will Bangalis go to a land which is ruled by the world’s most oppressive government, relatively less economic opportunity, less income (GDP per Capita in Bangladesh and Myanmar in 2011 are US$1700 and US$1300 respectively) and poorer infrastructures?
On 27th August 2012, she together with other six people from the terrorist groups like ALP and UPDF illegally crossed the Naff River, the Teknaf-Maung Daw border and entered Burma. They were given a warm welcome by the Rakhine extremists and separatists in Arakan. In Akyab (Sittwe), they held several secrets meetings with the Rakhine Buddhist Extremists such as Rakhine Nationalities Development Party (RNDP) responsible for the ongoing mass killings of Rohingyas and Burmese government officials. They have reached to an agreement with Burmese government to open an ALP liaison office in Arakan. From Arakan, she went to Rangoon (the second capital of Burma) to meet with higher government officials and other members of RNDP. The question is: how could a woman living in Dhaka and known for working against Burmese government for a long time illegally cross Bangladesh-Burma border, enter Burma and go to Rangoon to meet the higher officials of Burmese government unless she went there with an attractive proposal for them (Burmese government)? If so, what kind of proposal could that be? And after staying for two weeks in Burma, she returned to Bangladesh by crossing the same border again and is living in Dhaka now. With whose permission has she been doing that? Is she living in Bangladesh legally?
4)     The Malevolent Conspiracy
In late September 2012, there were series of attacks against the Buddhists’ houses and monasteries in Cox’s Bazaar District. According to an internal source, these attacks against their own monasteries conspired by these interest group in an attempt to destabilize the region. A member from these groups was called Uttam Barua. He, with the advice of his colleagues, has intentionally posted an insulting picture of holy Quran on Social Networking site, Facebook, knowing that Muslims would retaliate. And so happened! There are some benefits for them in doing so.
1) If they could have destabilized the region, their mission would have been achieved.
2) They could not destabilize the region. They are having sympathy of the country’s people as well as of government. And they can have more rights that will make their future steps easier.
Fortunately, Bangladesh government was rather quick to take action to normalize the situation which delayed their plans.
3) Besides, by doing so, they have diverted attention of Bangladeshis from the atrocities against Rohingyas in Arakan. To many Bangladeshis’ curiosities, the instigator of the attack, Uttam Barua, mysteriously disappeared from the scene after the attacks. Many Bangladeshis wonder where he can be now! According to a source in Burma, he is nowhere but in Burma given shelter by the state.
Why was he given shelter by Burma? What is the benefit for Burma in giving him shelter?
5) It is the Time for Both Bangladesh and Burma to realize their Intention!
It is very unfortunate that neither Burma nor Bangladesh understands the separatist tendency and long term ambition of these Rakhine war criminals. To stop the Rakhine province to secede from Burma, Rakhine leadership is right that it is only Rohingyas that can help Burma stay together. It is important to know that Rakhines are only 5% of total Burmese population but they are 30% in the Burmese army. If they go to jungle, it will be a major challenge for Burma. In addition, there are Rakhine militant groups such as ALP and Arakan Army (AA) working for the same purpose.
Similarly for Bangladesh, research shows, the rebellions in Chittagong Hill Tracts such as UPDF has been instigated largely by the Rakhine separatists from Burma. Some innocent looking Rakhine monks were found to carry weapons in Bangladesh. For its internal security, it would be good for Bangladesh to monitor these war criminals and their movements within Bangladesh. For the Rohingyas, if the international community ignores the killings of Rohingyas by the Rakhine extremist leaders, they and the international community must have the right to arrest them and send them to the ICC and stop their criminal bugging in that part of the world. Surely, if timely actions are not taken, there is a price to pay by both Burma and Bangladesh for silence!
Having said that, being a leading nation in solving Rohingyas’ problems through negotiating with Burmese government in cooperation with other nations, raising the matter in the international meetings by using its historians and historical evidences and its news media, Bangladesh can solve Rohingya problems and it will be the win-win situation for both Bangladesh and Rohingyas. Therefore, Bangladesh news media play a vital role in improving the vulnerable situations, solving the chronic problems and easing the oppressions that Rohingyas have been facing for decades. We, therefore, request Bangladesh News Media to possibly highlight the critical situation that Rohingyas and Kamans have been facing in Arakan for months. Highlighting their plights especially by the Bangladesh media will be the most effective in improving their vulnerable situation and hence will be beyond value for them.Source Bangla Times 

School of Rohingya in Malaysia

1 February 2013

School of Rohingya in Malaysia

Posted on January 31, 2013
_MG_4498 copy

Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen sleeping before waiting the evening class at a School of Rohingya in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said

_MG_4502 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen sleeping before waiting the evening class at a School of Rohingya in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4517 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen sleeping before waiting the evening class at a School of Rohingya in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said
_MG_4526 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen clean up himself before praying in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said
_MG_4580 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen walk to the evening class at a School of Rohingya in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said
_MG_4561 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen walk to the evening class at a School of Rohingya in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said
_MG_4540 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen take a Qoran  at a School of Rohingya in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said
_MG_4598 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4604 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia is seen do a praying at School of Rohingya in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4613 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia is seen do a praying at School of Rohingya in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4659 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, is seen in class at School of Rohingya in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4687 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4703 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4707 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4717 copy
Rohingya Muslim teacher, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4722 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4727 copy
Rohingya Muslim teacher, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4736 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, is seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4743 copy
Rohingya Muslim teacher, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4772 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4786 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4805 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4822 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4861 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4876 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4898 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen sleeping in class at a School of Rohingya in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4892 copy
Rohingya Muslim children, who live in Malaysia, are seen in class at a school in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said
_MG_4562 copy
A Rohingyas shows their UNICEF ID card near the School of Rohingya in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4577 copy
A Rohingya Muslim boy waits to see a doctor in a clinic near near the School of Rohingya in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.
_MG_4675 copy
Ethnic of Rohingya muslims, who living in Malaysia is seen waiting her customer near the School of Rohingya in Kuala Lumpur January 31, 2013. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya people have continued to suffer from human rights violations under the Burmese junta since 1978, and many have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia. DPI/Samsul Said.

A Short Historical Background of Arakan

A Short Historical Background of Arakan

Mohammed Ashraf Alam

Introduction
ARAKAN, once a sovereign and independent State, is now one of the states of the Union of Burma. The Arakan State comprises a strip of land along the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal from the Naf River to Cape Negaris and stretches north and south touching Bangladesh on the Northwest. The river Naf separates it from Chittagong region of Bangladesh.1 It is cut off from Burma by a range of near impassable mountains known as Arakan Yomas running north to south, which was an obstacle against permanent Muslim conquest. The northern part of Arakan, today called the “North Arakan,” was point of contact with East Bengal. These geographical facts explain the separate historical development of that area – both generally and in terms of its Muslim population until the Burmese king Bodaw Paya conquered it on 28th December 1784 AD.2 Under different periods of history Arakan had been an independent sovereign monarchy ruled by Hindus, Buddhists and Muslims.
The Etymology of Arakan and Rohang
The word Arakan is definitely of Arabic or Persian origin having the same meaning in both these languages. It is the corruption of the word Arkan plural of the word Al-Rukun. There exists some controversy about the origin of the name of ‘Arakan’ on which traditional and legendary sources differ. In fact, the name of Arakan is of much antiquity. In Ptolemy’s Geografia (150 AD) it was named ‘Argyre’. Early Buddhist missionaries called Arakan as ‘Rekkha Pura’. In the Ananda Chandra stone pillar of Chandra dynasty (8th Century) at Shitthaung Pagoda in Mrauk-U the name of Arakan was engraved as “Arakades’s”. In a Latin Geography (1597 AD) by Peta Vino, the country was referred to as ‘Aracan’. Friar Manrique (1628-43 AD) mentions the country as ‘Aracan’. 3
In the work of Arab geographer Rashiduddin (1310 AD) it appears as ‘Rahan or Raham’. The British travellers Relph Fitch (1586 AD) referred the name of Arakan as ‘Rocon’. In the Rennell’s map (1771 AD), it is ‘Rassawn’. Tripura Chronicle Rajmala mentions the name of Arakan as ‘Roshang’. In the medieval works of the poets of Arakan and Chittagong, like Quazi Daulat, Mardan, Shamser Ali, Quraishi Magan, Alaol, Ainuddin, Abdul Ghani and others, they frequently referred to Arakan as ‘Roshang’, ‘Roshanga’, ‘Roshango Shar’, and ‘Roshango Des’. Famous European traveller Francis Buchanam (1762-1829 AD) in his accounts mentioned Arakan as “Reng, Roung, Rossawn, Russawn, Rung”. In one of his accounts, “A Comparative Vocabulary of some of the languages spoken in the Burman Empire” it was stated that, “ the native Mugs of Arakan called themselves ‘Yakin’, which name is also commonly given to them by the Burmese. The people of Pegu are named ‘Taling’. By the Bengal Hindus, at least by such of them as have been settled in Arakan, the country is called Rossawn. The Mahammedans who have long settled at Arakan call the country ‘Rovingaw’ and called themselves ‘Rohinga’ or native of Arakan. The Persians called it ‘Rkon’.” The Chakmas and Saks of 18th century called it ‘Roang’. Today the Muslims of Arakan call the country ‘Rohang’ or ‘Arakan’ and call themselves ‘Rohingya’ or native of Rohang. The Maghs call themselves ‘Rakhine’ and call the country ‘Rakhine Pye’ or country of Rakhine.4
The Land and the People
The total area of Arakan is about 20,000 square miles. But Arakan Hill-tracts District (5235 square miles) and southern most part of Arakan were partitioned from Arakan. So, it has now been reduced to 14,200 square miles.5 The earliest inhabitants of Arakan belong to the Negrito group. They are mentioned in the Arakanese Chronicle as Rakkhasas or bilus (cannibals). They appear to be Neolithic descendants of the people of Arakan but no trace of them has yet been discovered in Arakan. At present two major ethnic races, the Rohingyas and the Rakhines (Maghs) inhabit in Arakan. The Rohingyas are Muslims and the Rakhines are Buddhists. Its unofficial total population now is more than 5 million, both inside and outside the country. At present, the Rohingyas and the Rakhines stand almost in equal proportion inside Arakan. In addition there are about 2 lakhs tribal people [Saks, Dinets (Chakmas) and Mros (Kamais)] and 2 lakhs Burman people in Arakan.6 Polygamy and early marriage enhance the population growth of Rohingyas. The growth rate is much lower among the Buddhist population because of monogamy, late marriage and celibacy. The Rohingyas are mostly concentrated in the riparian plains of Naf, Mayu and Kaladan. Arakan is the only Muslim majority province among the 14 provinces of Burma. Out of the 7 million Muslim population of Burma half of them are in Arakan.7
The Early History
Possibly the history of Arakan can be classified in the following manner into 10 periods: (1) 100-788 AD (Some Hindu dynasties), (2) 788-957 AD (Chandra Hindu dynasty), (3) 957-1430 (A Chaotic period of Mongolians, Buddhists and Muslims), (4) 1430-1784 AD (Mrauk-U dynasty of Muslims & Buddhists), (5) 1784-1826 AD (Burman Buddhist Rule), (6) 1826-1948 AD (British Colonial Rule), (7) 1948-1962 (Parliamentary Democracy Rule), (8) 1962-1974 AD (Revolutionary Military Government Rule), (9) 1975-1988 (One Party Socialist Programme Party Government Rule), (10) 1988-1999 AD (SLORC/SPDC Military Government Rule).
Under different periods of history, Arakan had been an independent and sovereign monarchy ruled by Hindus, Buddhists and Muslims. According to A. P Phayer and G.E. Harvey, the Arakanese kings established alternately capitals in eight different towns, transferring from one to another. They were successively at Dinnyawadi, 25 kings (146-746 AD); Vesali, 12 kings (788-994 AD); First Pyinsa (Sanbawut), 15 kings (1018-1103 AD); Parin, 8 kings (1103-1167 AD); Krit, 4 kings (1167-1180 AD); Second Pyinsa, 16 kings (1180-1237 AD); Launggyet, 17 kings (1237-1433 AD) and Mrauk-U, 48 kings (1433-1785 AD). 8
Buddhism would seem to have reached Arakan long before its arrival in the interior of Burma. The famous Mahamuni image of Lord Buddha, usually placed in the Shrine at Shiri Gupta hill of Dinnyawadi, an old capital and some 21 miles north of Mrauk-U may be dated from the early centuries of the Christian era. Mahamuni image was built by the king Sandathuriya (146-198 AD). There was Hindu god, which indicated that Arakan was a Hindu land until 10th century AD. According to Morris Collis, the Hindu ruled Arakan from 1st century to 10th century. At that time Arakan was the gate of Hindu India to contact with the countries of the East. But the Arakanese Rakhine chronicles claim that the kingdom of Dinnyawadi was founded in the year 2666 BC, and contain lists of kings beginning with that date.9
Inscriptions mention a Chandra dynasty, which may have been founded as early as the end of 8th century. Its capital was called by the Indian name of Vaisali, and thirteen kings of the dynasty are said to have reigned there for a total period of 230 years.10 The city of Vesali was founded in 788 AD by king Mahataing Sandya. The ruins of the city are still to be seen on the bank of a tidal creek about 44 miles inland from the Bay of Bengal (from Akyab City). This city became a noted trade port to which as many as a thousand ships came annually. The Chandara kings extended their territory as far north as Chittagong; the dynasty came to an end in 957 AD being overwhelmed by a Mongolian invasion. Vesali was an easterly Hindu kingdom of Bengal. Both government and people is Indian similar to that of Bengal.11
Before the arrival of Islam in Arakan, the people of Vesali professed Hinduism and Buddhism. Later they abandoned Hinduism and professed Buddhism and Islam. Inside the palace compound of Vesali there were many stone plates inscribed in Nagri. The Vesali kings also melted good silver coins. Stamped on them are the bull, Nandi, the avatar of Siva; Siva’s trident; and shred of flowers melted with Bhraman civilization.12
The arrival of Arabs and Islam in Arakan
The Arab Muslims first came in contact with the Indian Sub-continent and South East Asia through trade and commerce. From the time long past, spices, cotton fabric, precious stones, minerals and other commodities from South and South East Asia were of great demand in the oriental and European countries. The Arabs as seafaring nation almost monopolised this trade between the south and South East Asia on the one hand, the oriental North Africa and European countries on the other. The Arab merchants carried goods to the ports of Mascot and that of Serif on the two side of the Persian Gulf, Basra, Yemen, Jeddah, Qulzum (Suez), for exchange with the goods of the merchants of the Middle Eastern, Central Asian, North African and European countries. For about eight centuries the Arabs monopolised the trade between the East and the West. The Arabs were born traders, and after the introduction of Islam they became a great maritime people. Their profound knowledge in navigation, in the Science of Latitude and Longitude, in astronomical phenomena and in the geography of the countries they visited made them unrivalled in mercantile activities in the Indian Ocean for centuries together. The Arabs used to write about the places that they had visited which indicate their arrivals at East and the West of the world.13
There are frequent references to the Arab Muslims settlers in the coastal regions of Arakan from the 8th century onward. On the basis of the various Arab and Persian sources Mr. Siddiq Khan states as follow: 14
“To the maritime Arabs and Persians the various ports of the land of Burma, and more specially the coastal regions of Arakan… were well known. Naturally, therefore, when from the 8th century onwards, Muslims traders and navigators were spreading over the eastern seas from Egypt and Madagascar to China, and forming commercial settlements at points of vantage, the coastal regions of Burma were not overlooked. Originally, the intention of these traders and sailors had not been to establish permanent colonies, but owing to peculiar circumstances these acquired the nature of permanent settlements.”
Mohammed Hanifa and Queen Kaiyapuri
The Arab Muslim traders had good contacts with Arakan (Rahambori Island), Burma, Indochina, Indonesia, Malay etc. with their trade and they propagated the religion of Islam in those countries. The arrival of Mohammed Hanif son of Hazarat Ali (R.A) to Arakan is also narrated in a book written in 16th century by Shah Barid Khan named Hanifa O Kaiyapuri.
“In 680 AD after the war of ‘Karbala’ Mohammed Hanofiya with his army arrived at Arab-Shah Para, near Maungdaw in the Northern Arakan, while Kaiyapuri, the queen of Cannibals ruled this hilly deep forest attacking and looting the people of Arakan. Mohammed Hanif attacked the Cannibals and captured the queen. She was converted to Islam and married to him. Her followers embraced Islam en masse. Mohammed Hanif and the queen Kaiyapuri lived in Mayu range. The peaks where they lived were still known as Hanifa Tonki and Kaiyapui Tonki. The wild cannibals were tamed and became civilised. Arakan was no more in danger of them and peace and tranquillity prevailed. The followers of Mohammed Hanif and Kaiyapuri were mixed up and lived peacefully.”15 The descendants of these mixed people no doubt formed the original nucleus of the Rohingya Muslims in Arakan.
According to the British Burma Gazetteers, “About 788 AD Mahataing Sandya ascended the throne of Vesali, founded a new city (Vesali) on the site of old Ramawadi and died after a reign of twenty two years. In his reign several ships were wrecked on Rambree Island and the crews, said to have been Mohamedans, were sent to Arakan Proper and settled in villages. They were Moor Arab Muslims.”16
The Shrines of “Babazi Sha Monayem of Ambari”, “Pir Badar Sha” (Badar-Al-din Allamah), both situated on the coast of the Bay of Bengal at Akyab, all bear evidence of the arrival of Muslim saints in Arakan in the early period of history. In course of their trading activities in this part of the world, the Arabs colonised in and around Arakan first and afterward began to penetrate into interior part of Burma. They paved the way for the influx of Muslim saints, Sufis, Fakirs and sages in Arakan and East Bengal. Those sages used to visit the remote corners of the provinces only to preach their true religion Islam among the infidels and to dedicate their lives to the service of humanity and the oppressed and suppressed people of the land. The superior moral character and high missionary zeal of those followers attracted large number of people towards Islam who embraced it en masse. So, they have played a very important role in the growth of Muslim population and development of a Muslim Society in Arakan. Moreover, Islam as a resurgent force vastly influenced the warring and Caste-ridden Society of Arakan with its spirit of equality, fraternity and oneness of all human beings. This concepts inspired the down trodden masses to accept the new religion Islam.17
The Origin of Rohingya
Rohang, the old name of Arakan, was very familiar region for the Arab seafarers even during the pre-Islamic days. Tides of people like the Arabs, Moors, Turks, Pathans, Moghuls, Central Asians, Bengalees came mostly as traders, warriors, preachers and captives overland or through the sea route. Many settled in Arakan, and mixing with the local people, developed the present stock of people known as ethnic Rohingya. Hence, the Rohingya Muslims, whose settlements in Arakan date back to 7th century AD are not an ethnic group which developed from one tribal group affiliation or single racial stock. They are an ethnic group developed from different stocks of people. The ethnic Rohingya is Muslim by religion with distinct culture and civilisation of their own. They trace their ancestry to Arabs, Moors, Pathans, Moghuls, Central Asians, Bengalis and some Indo-Mongoloid people. Since Rohingyas are mixture of many kinds of people, their cheekbone is not so prominent and eyes are not so narrow like Rakhine Maghs and Burmans. Their noses are not flat and they are a bit taller in stature than the Rakhine Maghs but darker in complexion. They are some bronzing coloured and not yellowish. The Rohingyas of Arakan still carried the Arab names, faith, dress, music and customs. So, the Rohingyas are nationals as well as an indigenous ethnic group of Burma. They are not new born racial group of Arakan rather they are as old an indigenous race of the country as any others.18
The Origin of Rakhine
In the year 957 AD, a Mongolian invasion swept over Vesali, and killed Sula Chandra, the last king of Chandra dynasty. They destroyed Vesali and placed on their throne Mongolian kings. Within a few years the Hindus of Bengal were able to establish their Pala Dynasty. But the Hindus of Vesali were unable to restore their dynasty because of the invasion and migrations of Tibeto-Burman who were so great that their population over shadowed the Vesali Hindus. They cut Arakan away from Indians and mixing in sufficient number with the inhabitants of the eastern-side of the present Indo-Burma divide, created that Indo-Mongoloid stock now known as the Rakhine Arakanese. This emergence of a new race was not the work of a single invasion. But the date 957 AD may be said to mark the appearance of the Rakhine in Arakan, and the beginning of fresh period.19
The new English Dictionary states that the word Mog, Mogen, Mogue appear as names of Arakan and the people in 15-16th centuries.20 Today the Maghs of Arakan and Bangladesh disown this name because the word Magh became synonymous with sea pirates. For more than two centuries the Maghs of Arakan were known as sea pirates in Bengal. The Maghs earned such a bad name during the last many centuries that it has become a great shame for their descendants of today to own the name Magh. Thus they started calling themselves Rakhines. But according to Phayre, the name Magh originated from the ruling race of Magadha and also a well-known poet of Rosanga (Arakan), Dault Kazi (1622-38) mentioned in his Sati Mayna that the kings of Arakan belonged to Magadha dynasty and was Buddhists by faith.21
According to the Maghs of Arakan, they are descendants of Rakkhasa (bilu); the aborigine of the land and the name of their country is Rakkahpura. Ethnically most of the Arakanese Magh belongs to the Mongoloid race. Ethnologists point out that north-western China, the cradle land of mankind between the upper courses of the Yang-Tse-Kiang and of the Hoang-Ho rivers was their earliest home. They entered the area, now known as Burma, through the upper courses of the Irrawadi and Chindwin in three successive waves. In making this entry they encountered the local Mon-Khmer and by defeating them they settled in Burma. However, Arakan Yoma Mountain separates the Arakanese Maghs from the parent stock. Though descended from the same stock, worshipping the same faith and speaking the same language as the Burmese, the Arakanese Maghs have a distinct culture and have preserved a distinct dialect. Hence the Arakanese Maghs of the northern section, close to Bangladesh, exhibit the original Mongoloid features in lesser and subdued degree than their southern brethren. Whether these ethnic differences are due to the intermixture of race or ecological and other factors it is not known. The Arakanese Maghs are short in stature, whose height rarely exceeds five feet six inches. The body seems to be stocky with relatively short legs and body; cheekbone is high and broad. Females are flat chested with thin lips. Black straight hairs, brown small eyes and flat nose are common features of the present-day Rakhine Magh population.22
The spoken language of Rakhine Magh is not a separate language but pure Burmese with phonetic variation. Historians commented on the Rakhine language as follows:23
“ The question of the emergence of the Arakanese Rakhine language is more difficult. No inscriptions in the Burmese script are found in Arakan before 11th and 12th centuries. Whether it was the language of the Mongolian invaders of 10th century or whether it filtered across the mountains after contact with Burma in the 11th and 12th centuries is undecided. As Rakhine language is the same language as Burmese, being merely a dialect, to suppose that it was the language of the invaders is to contend that the Mongolians who extinguished Chandras spoke afterwards became predominant in the Irrawady plain. If the country is postulated, and it is argued that the Burmese language, coming over the mountain road, impinged upon the Mongolian speech of the then Arakanese and created modern Arakanese, linguistic difficulties are raised which are difficult to solve. This question awaits judgement.”
King Anawratta of Pagan (1044-77 AD) conquered North Arakan, but it was not incorporated in his kingdom. It remained a semi-independent feudatory state under its hereditary kings. When Pagan fell in 1287 AD Arakan asserted its independence under the famous Minhti, whose regime, according to the chronicles, lasted for the fabulously long period of ninety-five years (1279-1374 AD). His reign is also notable for the defeat of a Bengali raid. After his death Arakan was for a considerable time one of the theatres of war in the great struggle between Ava and the Mon kingdom of Pegu. Both sides sought to gain control over it. First the Burmese, then the Mons, placed their nominees on its throne.24
The development of Muslim Settlements in Arakan
The infiltration of Arabs to Arakan has started before Muslims conquest of India. The oft-quoted statements and records of Arab geographers and traders are important source to reconstruct the history of the coming of the Muslims to Arakan. The Arabs used to write about the places that they had visited which indicate their arrivals at east and west of the world. Referring to the early geographers, G.E. Hervay writes, “ To the Arabs, whose shipping predominated in the eastern seas from 8th to 16th century, Burma was Arakan and Lower Burma.” In addition, from the very beginning of Muslim commercial shipping activity in the Bay of Bengal, the Muslim trading ships reach the ports of Arakan just as they did the ports of Burma proper. And as in Burma so, too, in Arakan is there a long tradition of old Indian settlement.25
Bengal became Muslim in 1203 AD, but this was the extreme eastern limit of Islamic overland expansion (although the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian archipelago were Islamized much later by missionaries and merchants who came by sea). In northern Arakan close overland ties were formed with East Bengal. The resulting cultural and political Muslim influence was of great significance in the history of Arakan. Actually, Arakan served to a large extent as a bridgehead for Muslim penetration to other parts of Burma, and also Muslims attained some degrees of importance elsewhere as they did in Arakan. The Islamic influence grew in Arakan to the extent of establishing Muslim vassal state beginning in 1430 AD. Muslim’s rule and influence in Arakan lasted for more than 350 years until it was invaded and occupied by Burman in 1784 AD.26
The emergence of Mrauk-U Empire
This independent kingdom turned westward, toward Bengal, as a result of the growing power of the Burmese court of Ava. In 1404 AD, the king of Arakan, Narameikhla (1404-1434 AD), was forced to flee to Gaur, capital of Bengal Sultanate, which 86 years earlier had already become independent of the Mogul Emperor in Delhi. Ahmed Shah, Sultan of Gaur, welcomed the refugee king. Narameikhla remained at the court of Gaur, where he served as an officer in Ahmad Shah’s army and fought in his wars. After the victory of the war, king Ahmed Shah handed over the throne of Gaur to his son Nazir Shah (according to Bengal History it was not Nazir Shah but Sultan Jalaluddin Mohammed Shah) in the year 1426 AD.27
Then Naramaikhla pleaded help from the king to regain his lost throne at Launggyet in Arakan. According to Rakhine Razawin (Rakhine History), the Sultan of Bengal agreed to do so when Naramaikhla agreed to abide the following 6-point conditions. They are: – 28
1. To return the twelve towns of Bengal.29
2. To receive Muslim title for the kings of Arakan from Bengal.
3. The court emblem must be inscribed with Kalima Tayuba in Persian.
4. The coins, medallions must be inscribed with Kalima Tayuba in Persian and to mint them in Bengal.
5. To use the Persian as court language of Arakan.
6. To pay taxes and presents annually.
The arrival pathan army in Arakan
As Naramaikhla agreed to six point conditions (Arakanese kings also followed and practised them while they were independent and under no obligation), in 1429 AD, Sultan Nadir Shah sent Gen. Wali Khan as the head of 20,000 Pathan army with Naramaikhla to restore the throne of Arakan to Naramaikhla. The Pathan army conquered Arakan from the control of Mon and Naramaikhla ascended the throne. Soon Wali Khan and Naramaikhla had a dispute over the No. 5 condition of introduction of Persian language as court language of Arakan. Gen. Wali Khan arrested king Naramaikhla and locked up at Balutaung fettering him. Gen. Wali Khan ruled Arakan for one year and introduced Persian in his court which continued as state language up to 1845 AD and appointed Qazis. But some time after that Narameikhla succeeded in re-conquering Arakan with the help of a second army supplied by Nadir Shah headed by Gen. Sandi Khan. The accession of Min Sawmon to the throne ushered a new era in the history of Arakan. Upon his return, Narameikhla founded a new city, Mrauk-U on the bank of the Lembro River, now known as Mrohaung, which remain the capital until 1785 when Arakan was conquered by Burma. Narameikhla’s Muslim soldiers, who came with him from Bengal, settled in villages near Mrohaung and built the Sandi Khan Mosque, which still exists today. Muslim influence in Arakan, they may be said to date from 1430, the year of Narameikhla’s return. As a result of the close land and sea ties between the two countries, which continued to exist for a long time thereafter, the Muslims played a decisive role in the history of Arakan Kingdom.30
Mrauk-U Sultanate
Narameikhla ceded certain territory to the Sultan of Bengal and recognised his sovereignty. He introduced Nadir Shah’s system of coins bearing the Kalima as used in Bengal since Muslim conquest of 1203 and its fellows that the coinage of Mrauk-U was subsequently modelled. Later on he struck his own coins which had the name of the king in Arakanese letters on one side and his Muslim title in Persian on the other. According to historian M.S Collis, it took the Arakanese a hundred years to learn that doctrine (Islam) from the Moslem-Mongolians. When it was well understood, they founded what was known as the Arakanese Empire. For hundred years 1430 to 1530 AD, Arakan remained feudatory to Bengal, paid tribute and learnt history and polities. Twelve kings followed one after another at Mrauk-U in undistinguished succession. They struck coins and some have been found. In this way Arakan become definitely oriented towards the Moslem State. Contact with a modern civilization resulted in a renaissance. The country’s great age began. In 1531 AD Min Bin as Zabuk Shah ascended the throne. With him the Arakanese graduated in their Moslem studies and the great Arakanese Empire was founded.31 But according to Arakanese historian U Aung Tha Oo, all 13 kings including Min Bin received Muslim titles and state Emblem from the Bengal Sultans.32
In 1434 AD, at the age of 53, Min Sawmon died leaving his kingdom at the hand of his brother Min Khari as Ali Khan (1434-1459 AD) as his successor. Min Khari was succeeded by his son Basawpru as Kalima Shah (1459-1482 AD). Taking advantage of weakness of Sultan Barbak Shah of Bengal Kalima Shah occupied Chittagong in 1459 AD. Kalima Shah was murdered in 1482 AD and his kingdom plunged into chaos and disaster. Eight kings came to the throne in succession but most of them were assassinated. At last in 1531 AD a capable young king name Min Bin as Zabuk Shah (1531-1553 AD) ascended the throne of Arakan and declared himself as a full independent monarch. During his rule stability came back in Arakan.33 Even after becoming independent of the Bengal Sultans, the Arakan kings continued the custom of using the Muslim titles in addition to the Arakanese or Pali title. The fact that this practice continued even after they had shaken off the yoke of Bengal Sultan, goes to prove that there were some cogent reasons for this other than merely compulsion or force. The king had already a large number of Muslim subjects holding important posts in the court as well as in the field of trade and commerce possessing a far superior culture and civilization compared to those of his own people. Court ceremonies and administrative methods followed the customs of the Gaur and Delhi sultanates. There were eunuchs, harems, salves and hangmen; and many expressions in use at court were Mogul. Muslims also held eminent posts in the court of Arakan. With the ever increasing Muslim influence in the court of Arakan and the subsequent subservience of the administration Sonargaon, Muslims of Gaur and particularly those from Chittagong infiltrated into Arakan in large numbers in search of fresh lands and new pasture. Henceforth Arakanese administration continued to bear definite Islamic stamp.34
Dr. Muhammad Enanmul Haq and Abdul Karim (1869-1953) in their work Bengali Literature in the Court of Arakan 1600-1700 state that “ the Arakanese kings issued coins bearing the inscription of Muslim Kalema (the profession of faith in Islam) in Arabic script. The State emblem was also inscribed Arabic word Aqimuddin (establishment of God’s rule over the earth).” The Arakanese court also adoption of many Muslim customs and terms were other significant tribute to the influence of Islam. Mosques including the famous Sandi Khan Mosque began to dot the countryside and Islamic customs, manners and practices came to be established since this time. For about two hundred years Muslim domination seemed to have been completed.35
The kingdom of Arakan had come in close cultural contact with the Muslim Sultanate of Bengal since fifteen century so much so that many of the Buddhist rulers of that country adopted Muslim names for themselves. They appointed Muslim officials in their courts and, apparently under the latter’s influence, even inscribed the Kalima on their coins. Contact with a modern civilization resulted in a renaissance. The country’s great age began. From this time onwards the relation of Muslims with the Arakanese became more intimate and for about two centuries Arakan was united in a bond of friendship with Islamic lands. As a result of the impact of the civilization of the Muslims, Arakanese culture also progressed and thus the ‘ Golden Age’ in the history of Arakan. The end of the sixteenth and the first half of the seventeenth century were a period of political instability and transition caused by the break-up of the Afghan state in Bengal and gradual advance of the Mughals. One of the social and demographic effects of this political change was the flight of a large number of Afghan nobles and other Muslims rank and position towards the easternmost districts of Bengal. Quite a few of these people found shelter at the Arakan court where they filled up important positions in the government. In this way Arakan became definitely oriented towards the Muslim State. By the end of 1500 AD Arakan region was Islamized and stood as an independent Muslim kingdom.36 It was later absorbed by the Burmese king in 1784 AD.
The conquest of Chittagong and the influence
Bengli Muslim cultures and literatures in Arakan
Arakan, in fact, a continuation of the Chittagong plain was neither a Burmese nor an Indian Territory till 18th century of the Christian Era. Shut off from Burma by a hill range, it is located far away from the Indian capitals. Chiefly for its location, it had not only remained independent for the most part of its history, but also endeavoured to expand its territory in the surrounding tracts whenever opportunity came and Chittagong was the first country to be the victim of the territorial ambition of Arakanese monarchs.37 The relation between Chittagong and Arakan is influenced by geographical, ethnological, cultural, and historical considerations. From 1575 till 1666 AD, nearly a century, Chittagong was under almost uninterrupted Arakanese rule which is undoubtedly an important period marked; a company of eight sovereigns successively ruled Arakan only with Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts with full despotic power.38
After Min Sawmon, the successive kings of Arakan took initiative to evolve administration on the model of Gaur and the Muslims were given high posts in the government offices. It is also true that a large number of Muslim officials were employed in the civil as well as military establishments, who were mostly from Chittagong. As a result of the royal patronage, settlements of the Muslim community also grew upon the south-eastern neighbourhood of Mrauk-U; all these settlements are popularly known as Kalapanzan. Close to the Mrauk-U City, in course of time, a trading port named Bandar was developed. In Bandar there lived qadis, muftis, ulama, religious fakirs and darvishes. Those high ranking Muslims living there used to converse with the king on equal and friendly terms. At that place the Muslims crowded for business. The ruins of seven mosques and towers (some still standing) eloquently testify to the heydays of the Muslims in Arakan. Most of the Muslim settlements are found on the both sides of the major rivers namely Naf, Mayu (Kalapanzi), Kaladan and Lembro (Lemro). The impact of Muslim culture on the life of the people of Arakan had profound effect on the subsequent course of the history of Arakan. Like the Pathan Sultans of Bengal, the kings of Arakan patronised the cultivation of Bengali literature and many talented poets and writers from different regions thronged the court. With the royal support Bengali literature developed; learned men and men of high calibre received patronage from the kings due to the liberal policy. Many Muslim Bengalee poets dominated the court life.39
Bengali became a favourite language and the Arakan kings encouraged the writing of a number of Puttis, which was then the only form of literature. Some Putti literatures to be mentioned of Arakan are: Shuja Qazi’s Roshanger Panchali (History of Roshang), Kazi Daulat’s Sati Mayna-O-Lora Candrani, Shamer Ali’s Razawan Shah, Mardan’s Nasir Nama or Nasir Maloum, Shah Alaol’s Padmabati, Tufa, Sati Mayna Lor Chandrani, Saiful Mulk Badiujjamal, Sikander Nama, Hatf-Paikar, Abdul Karim’s Dulla Mailis, Hajar Masil, Tamam Anjari, Qazi Abdul Karim’s Rahatul Qulub, Abdullar Hazar Sawal, Nurnama, Madhumalati, Darige Majlis, Abul Hussain’s Adamer Larai, Ismail Saquib’s Bilqisnama, Qazi Muhammad Hussain’s Amir Hamza, Dewalmati, Haidar Jung, and etc. Thus Arakan opened up a new field for expansion and exploitation for the Muslims of Chittagong. Except for the political barriers Chittagong and Arakan became one in all other respects and this continued for well over a century and to some extent lingered even up to the first half of the last century.40
The Arakanese Kings with Muslim names and titles
According to former Chairman of Historical Commission, Burma, Lt. Col. Ba Shin’s “Coming of Islam to Burma 1700 AD”, Min Sawmon as Solaiman Shah, the founder of Mrauk-U dynasty and his successor were greatly influenced by Islamic culture. The practice of adopting a Muslim name or title by the Arakanese kings continued for more than two hundred years (1430 – 1638). This titles which appeared in Arabic script / Persian Kufic on their coins is given below: 41

No.  Names of the Kings Muslim Names  Reigning Period
 1.  Narameikhla (a) Sawmon Solaiman Shah  1430-1434 AD.
 2.  Meng Khari (a) Naranu Ali Khan  1434-1459
 3.  Ba Saw Pru Kalima Shah  1459-1482
 4.  Dawlya Mathu Shah  1482-1492
 5.  Ba Saw Nyo Mohammed Shah  1492-1493
 6.  Ran Aung Noori Shah  1493-1494
 7.  Salimgathu Sheikh Abdullah Shah  1494-1501
 8.  Meng Raza Ilias Shah – I  1501-1513
 9.  Kasabadi Ilias Shah -II  1513-1515
 10.  Meng Saw Oo Jalal Shah  1515
 11.  Thatsa Ali Shah  1515-1521
 12.  Min Khaung Raza El-Shah Azad  1521-1531
 13.  Min Bin (a) Min Pa Gri Zabuk Shah  1531-1553
 14.  Min Dikha Daud Khan  1553-1555
 15.  Min Phalaung Sikendar Shah  1571-1591
 16.  Min Razagri Salim Shah – I  1593-1612
 17.  Min Khamaung Hussain Shah  1612-1622
 18.  Thiri Thudama Salim Shah – II  1622-1637

The arrival of Portuguese in Arakan
The Portuguese arrived in the Eastern waters about the year 1500 AD in search of trade. They were mariners and seamen of unique characters. An agreement with Portuguese was reached. When Min Bin as Zabuk Shah came to the throne he turned Mrauk-U into the strongest fortified city of the Bay, employing the Portuguese to lay out his walls and moats and to forge mount his cannon. He appointed them as military officers to train and equip a mercenary army of heterogeneous races, foreign and domestic; and he built with their aid, a large fleet manned with his own men, who were hardy boatmen, but guided and stiffened by Portuguese. King Min Bin in this way became master of a powerful modern weapon.42
In July 1538 AD, the Mogul king Humayon entered Gaur and displaced the Independent dynasty of Arab Hussein Shahi dynasty.43 The pretender was Sher Shah. During the whole of Min Bin’s reign the administration of Bengal was interrupted by that struggle and Eastern Bengal lay defenceless. For Min Bin, armed as the non-was, this was opportunity. With a combined fleet and army movement he occupied Eastern Bengal. That province remained to Arakan for the next hundred and twenty years, till 1666 AD. Its administration was left in the hands of twelve local rajahs, who paid an annual tribute to the Arakanese king’s viceroy at Chittagong.44 After conquest of Chittagong Min Bin struck coins on which Chittagong King and his Muslim name Zabauk Shah were inscribed. If King Min Bin founded the prosperity of Mrauk-U dynasty, Min Rajagri as Salim Shah, his successor of forty years later, may be said consolidated it.45
The activities of Magh and Portuguese pirates
The capture and enslavement of prisoners was one of the most lucrative types of plunder. Half the prisoners taken by the Portuguese and all the artisans among them were given to the king. The rest were sold on the market or forced to settle in the villages near Mrohaung. A considerable number of these captives were Muslim. In addition to the Muslim prisoners and slaves brought to Arakan from Bengal and even from north India, many more came to serve as mercenaries in the Arakanese army, usually as the king’s bodyguard.46
Early in the 17th century the Portuguese reached the shores of Bengal and Arakan. At that time too, the raiding Arakanese ships reached the source of Ganges. They came into contact with the Portuguese and permitted them to establish bases for their operations and also granted them commercial concession. In return, the Portuguese helped to defend the Arakan boundaries. In 1576 AD. Akbar the Great, Emperor of Delhi, was efficiently ruling Bengal so that Arakan was now facing the Mogul Empire itself and not only Bengal. The Portuguese knowledge of firearms and artillery was more advanced than that of the Moguls, and Arakan profited much there by. Joint Arakanese-Portuguese raids on Bengal continued until the end of the 18th century and ceased entirely with the strengthening of the British naval force in the Bay of Bengal.47
King Mingphalaung as Sikander Shah (1571-93), worthy son of conqueror Min Bin as Sultan Zabuk Shah ascended the throne of Arakan in 1571 AD. He went up to Dacca and held all parts of Chittagong and ports of Noakhali and Tippera.48 King Minphalung was succeeded by his son Meng Razagryi as Salim Shah I (1593-1612). In 1599 AD. Meng Razagyi attacked Pegu. In this expedition he employed a flotilla from Chittagong and the Ganges delta. The expedition was crowned with success. On the return journeys the wise minister Mahapinyakyaw, lord of Chittagong, died.49
King Salim Shah I, called himself king of Bengal and Tippura, issued trilingual coins from Chittagong in Arabic, Nagari and Devanagri with his Pali and Muslim titles in 1601 AD. For a short period during the reign of Salim Shah I Arakan extended from Dacca and the Sundarbans to Moulmein, a Coastal Strip of a thousand miles in length and varying from 150 to 20 miles in depth. This considerable dominion was built up by means of the strong cosmopolitan army and navy organised by king Minbin as Zabuk Shah. King Salim Shah I was succeeded by his eldest son Meng Khamaung as Hussain Shah (1612-1622 AD). In 1609 AD the Portuguese occupied Sandip and established their independent base. From this base they conducted several hostile incursions in different parts of the Arakanese kingdom. So the Arakanese king decided to destroy the Portuguese bases. In early 1615 AD the Arakanese laid siege to the island of Sandip and later they occupied the island with the help of Dutch. The Arakanese capture of Sandip in 1615 AD shattered the Portuguese dream of establishing a maritime and religions empire in the region. King Hussein Shah proved to be a great and most successful king of Arakan.50
The main source of information on that period is the Portuguese traveller, the Augustan monk Sebastian Manrique, who was in Arakan from 1629 to 1637 AD. Using not only his own memoirs but also ancient Arakanese sources placed at his disposal, Manrique in his book described the arrival of Muslim prisoners, and Muslim army units at the Arakan king’s court. He also mentioned important Muslims who were holding key positions in the kingdom and comments on the foreign trade colonies mostly Muslims, which existed in Arakan. The prisoners were brought from Bengal in Portuguese and Arakanese ships, some of whose sailors were themselves Muslims – a fact that did not trouble them in their profession, not even the fact that enslaving a Muslim stands in contrast with the Muslim Law, the Shari’a. Manrique gives a detailed description of such Muslim prisoners, which he accompanied. He even tried -without success to convert the Muslims to Christianity. Some of these captive salves were settled in special areas guarded by Muslim soldiers.51
For nearly half a century, Chittagong was a breeding ground of the pirates who ravaged the whole of lower Bengal, depopulated it and turned it to wilderness. During the four years from 1621 AD to 1624 AD the Arakanese Maghs in alliance with the Portuguese pirates brought to Chittagong then in possession of the king of Arakan, 42,000 slaves captured in the various districts of Bengal. Only Portuguese sold their captives but the Maghs employed all of them they had carried off in agriculture and other services.52
In 17th century the Maghs and Portuguese pirates brought Bengalee captives, both Muslims and Hindus, and sold at the ports of Arakan and India. Referring to 17th century historians G.E. Harvey writes as follows:- 53
“… With the Arakanese they (Portuguese pirates) made a dire combination, holding Sandwip island, Noahkali and Backergunge districts, and the Sunderbands delta south of Calcutta, and raiding up to Dacca and even Murshidabad, while Tippura sent them propitiatory tribute. After they had sacked Dacca, his capital, in 1625 AD the Moghul governor felt so unsafe that for a time he lived further inland. For generations an iron chain was stretched across the Hoogly River between Calcutta and Sibpur to prevent their entrance. In a single month, February 1727 AD, they carried off 1,800 captives from the southern parts of Bengal; the king chose the artisans, about one-fourth, to be his slaves, and the rest were sold at prices varying from Rs. 20 to Rs. 70 a head and set to work on the land as slaves. This continued throughout the eighteenth century, decreasing when the English began to police the coast. But even in 1795 AD they were plundering the king of Burma’s boats off Arakan, laden with his customs dues of 10 per cent in kind. Rennell’s map of Bengal, published in 1794 AD marks the area south of Backergunge ‘deserted on account of the ravages of the Muggs (Arakanese)’. They had forts at Jagdia and Alamgirnagar in the mouth of the Meghna River, and here and there a few of them settled in the delta. They had also a little colony of 1,500, speaking Burmese and wearing Burmese dress, still survive on four or five islands in the extreme southeast of Backergunge district. They did not occupy the country administratively, they held it to blackmail.”
“ The Arakan pirates, both Magh and feringhi, used constantly to come by the water-route and plunder Bengal. They carried off the Hindus and Mahomedans that they could seize, pierced the palms of their hands, passed thin strips of cane through the holes and threw them huddled together under the decks of their ships. Every morning they flung down some uncooked rice to the captives from above, as we fling grain to fowl. On reaching home the pirates employed some of the hardy men that survived such treatment in tillage and other degrading pursuits. The others were sold to the Dutch, English, and French merchants at the ports of the Deccan. Sometimes they brought their captives to ….. Orissa; anchoring a short distance from the coast they sent a man ashore with the news. The local officers, in fear of the pirates committing any depredation or kidnapping there, stood on the shore with a number of followers, and sent a man with money on board. If the terms were satisfactory, the pirates took the ransom and set the captives free with the man. Only the feringhis sold their prisoners. But the Maghs employed all whom they had carried off in agriculture and other services. Many highborn persons and Saiyads, many Saiyad – born pure women, were compelled to undergo the disgrace of slavery or concubinage to these wicked men. Mahomedans underwent such oppression as they had not to suffer in Europe. As they continually practised raids for a long time, Bengal daily became more and more desolate and less and less able to resist them. Not a house was left inhabited on their side of the rivers lying on their track from Chittagong to Dacca. The district of Bakla [Backergunge and part of Dacca], which formerly abounded in houses and cultivated fields and yield a large revenue as duty on betel-nuts, was swept so clean with their broom of plunder and abduction that none was left to tenant any house or kindle a light in that region. …… The governor of Dacca had to confine his energies to the defence of that city only and to the prevention of the coming of the pirate fleet to Dacca; he stretched iron chains across the stream …… The sailors of the Bengal flotilla were inspired with such fear of the pirates that whenever a hundred war-boats of the former sighted only four of the latter, the Bengal crew thought themselves lucky if they could save their lives by flights; and when the distance was too short to permit escape, they – rowers, sepoys, and gunners alike – threw themselves overboard, preferring drowning to captivity. Many feringhis living at Chittagong used to visit the imperial dominions for plunder and abduction. Half their booty they gave to the raja of Arakan and other half they kept. They were known as the Hermad [Armada] and owned a hundred swift jalia boats full of war material … Latterly the raja of Arakan did not send his own fleet to plunder the Moghul territory, as he considered the feringhi pirates in the light of his servants and shared their booty. When Shayista Khan asked the feringhi deserters, what salary the Magh king had assigned to them, they replied “Our salary was the Moghul Empire. We considered the whole of Bengal as our fief. We had not to bother revenue surveyors and ourselves about court clerks but levied our rent all the year round without difficulty. We have kept the papers of the division of the booty for the last forty years.” (Year 1670 circ., Shihabuddin Talish, soldier and historian, see Jadunath Sarkar “History of Aurangzib” III. 224 and JAS Bengal 1907 his “The Feringi Pirates of Chatgaon” 422)
Some Muslim Prime Ministers, Defense Ministers and Ministers in the Royal Court of Arakan
King Meng Khamaung was succeeded by his son Thiri Thudama as King Salim Shah II (1622-1638 AD) in 1622 AD. According to the history, the coronation of Thiri Thudama was deferred for twelve years, in pursuance of an astrological prediction that the king would die within a year of his coronation. The great king knowing that his life would come to an end transferred the rule of the kingdom to the hand of his Chief and Defence Minister Sri Ashraf Khan. According to the Muslim Poet Daulat Kazi’s book known as Sati Mayna-O-Lora Candrani, the king made Ashraf Khan his Chief Minister and the Commander of his army. He sat in court, and look after the day to day affairs of the kingdom. When the king felt that his end was drawing near, he celebrated the coronation ceremony and entrusted Ashraf Khan with the responsibility of governing the country.54 Portuguese traveller Sebastien Manrique also refers to Lashkar Wazir when he says that the Lashker Wazir led the Muslim contingent of army in the coronation procession of the king Thiri Thudama in 1635 AD.55 His son Min Sani in 1638 AD succeeded King Thiri Thudama, the unfortunate prince ruled for a brief period of 28-days. Narapadigyi, the dowager queen’s lover, who occupied the throne of Arakan, murdered Min Sani.56
According to Muslim Poet Shah Alawal of Arakan court, Narapdigyi (1638-1645 AD.) was king of Arakan after the death of King Thiri Thudama’s son Min Sani. He was a paramour of Natshinme, the chief queen of Thiri Thudama and was great grand son of King Thatasa who ruled Arakan 1525-31 AD.57 King Narapadigyi’s War Minister or Lashkar Wazir was Siri Bara Thakur. After the death of Bara Thakur his illustrious son Magen Thakur became the Lashkar Wazir or War Minister of king Narapadigyi. According to Poet Shah Alawal, Magen Thakur was born of Siddique family or descendants of the Muslim first Caliph Hazarat Abu Bakar (RA). He was not only a high born but also a learned man and he respected the learned people. He gathered the learned people of the country by his side and showed them much respect. King Narapdigyi had no son, but only a daughter. When the king became old, he appointed Magen Thakur, who was a minister, guardian of his daughter. After the king’s death she was married to Thado Mintar, nephew of the king. Thado Mintar (1645-1652 AD) became king in 1645 AD and the king’s daughter became chief queen of the kingdom. During the reign of Thado Mintar and his queen, Magen Thakur was promoted to the Chief or Prime Minister of Arakan.58 Poet Shah Alawal composed his famous poetical works Padmavati under the order of Prime Minister Magen Thakur and completed in 1651 AD during the reign of Thado Mintar. The king died in 1652 AD and was succeeded by his minor son Sanda Thudhamma (1652-1684 AD). As the king was minor, the dowager queen (Thado’s queen and Narapadigyi’s daughter) ruled the country as regent. She gave her guardian Magen Thakur the authority to rule the country on her and her son’s behalf. Magen Thakur’s power and influence was further enhanced. Prime Minister Magen Thakur later ordered Shah Alawal to compose Saiful Mulk Badiujjamal. Before the completing the book Magen Thakur died. Shah Alawal completed the book in 1658 or 1659 AD under the patronage of another Arakanese Prime Minister Sayeed Musa. It is thought that Magen Thakur died before 1660 AD.59
After the death of Prime Minister Magen Thakur, Sayeed Musa was appointed the Prime Minister of Arakanese king Sanda Thudamma. Prime Minister Sayeed Musa was a great man and he used to patronise learned man and seeker of knowledge. He was a friend of Prime Minister Magen Thakur and was a minister under him.60
Poet Shah Alawal composed Satimaing-Lor Chandrani in 1658 AD under the patronage of Minister Sulaiman of King Sanda Thudamma of Arakan. In 1660 AD under the order of minister Sayyid Mohammed Khan of king Sanda Thudamma Poet Shah Alawal composed the book Half-Paikar.61
Shah Shuja in Arakan
Prince Shah Shuja, brother of the Moghul Emperor Aurangzib of India, being defeated in his struggle for the throne was forced to seek shelter with the king of Arakan. The Arakan King Sandathudamma (1652-84) consented, and Shah Shuja with his family and followers were brought to Mrauk-U, the capital city of Arakan, in Portuguese gallases from Teknaf. He arrived in Mrauk-U, the capital of Arakan on 26th August 1660 AD and was favourably received by the king who assigned him a residence near the city.62 According to G.E. Harvey’s Outline of Burmese History, “Shah Shuja came to Arakan as the king promised to provide him with some of his famous ships to take him on the way to Macca; he wished to die in retirement at that holy spot. But when he arrived in Arakan with beautiful daughters and half a dozen camel loads of gold and jewels, the temptation was too great for King Sanda Thudamma. Such wealth had never seen in Arakan before. The king in order to seize all Shah Shuja’s treasure had to find out a lame excuse. So, king Sanda Thudamma asked the hand of Shah Shuja’s daughter Ameena, though he knew very well that Sultan Shah Shuja would never consent. As Shah Shuja refused the suit, the king ordered him to leave his country within three days. So, on 7th February 1661 AD, Shah Shuja fled to forest with some of his followers. The Maghs chased them like famishing wild wolves. Ultimately the Maghs caught Sultan Shah Shuja and chopped him into pieces. The king seized all his treasure, took his daughters into the harem, and imprisoned the rest of the family. Everyday the gold and silver, which the Arakanese have taken, are brought into the King’s treasury to be melted down. A year later he executed them all for so called plotting, including the unhappy princess.”63
Sirimanta Sulaiman was Finance Minister of King Sanda Thudamma. At his request Shah Alawal composed Tufa (1662-64 AD) and completed the unfinished Satimaina Lor Chandrani. The first book was a book on Fiqh, while Qazi Daulat wrote the second at the request of Lashker Wazir Ashraf Khan. Before completing the book the poet died and the book remain incomplete. Shah Alawal completed the last part of the book. According to Shah Alawal’s Tufa: “Roshang is a blessed country. There is no sin there and Sri Sanda Thudhamma is the king there. So his minister Sri-Yut Sulaiman is a man of heavenly knowledge. God created him at an auspicious hour. He is kind, he is lucky and joyous. He is a singer and plays instrumental and works for other’s benefit, giving up his own works ——–. The poet says that Srimanta Sulaiman loved learned people so much so that he used to provide them food, clothes and shelter, particularly the foreigners on coming to Arakan received help and patronage from him.64
According to Shah Alawal’s Sikander Nama, Srimata Majlis became a Mahamatya or Chief or Prime Minister of Roshang after getting Nabaraj: seems therefore that his name was Srimata Majlis. Nabaraj was his official title. It is possible that after the death of Prime Minister Sayyid Musa, Nabaraj Majlis obtained the job. It seems further that Shah Alawal was not acquainted with Nabaraj Majlis before; hearing the name and fame of Alawal, Nabaraj Mujlis called the poet to his court and gave him much support, so much so that Shah Alawal was able to clear the state dues. Once Prime Minister sat in the assembly of learned men, arranged foods and drinks for the guests. Those present in the assembly praised the Prime Minister for his good works, particularly the construction of Mosques and excavation of tanks. In reply Nabaraj Majlis said that mosques and tanks were not permanent. In old days great men did these beneficial works, but they did not last. Only books have lasted, books pleased the readers, books imparts education. Illiterate people became learned by reading books; books and poets are honoured not only in their own country but also out side, and books last until the day of resurrection. Shah Alawal in 1673 AD completed the book Sikander Nama.65
Nabaraj Majlis was not only the Prime Minister of the kingdom; he was so important a personality that he administered the coronation oath to the king Sanda Thudhamma. The king must have his Magh Ministers also, but the Muslim Minister got prominence. Shah Alawal says about this: “The great religious king had a Prime Minister known as Nabaraj Majlis. He was a great minister and chief of all Muslims of Rohang. Now, I will tell something about Majlis. When the king went to the heaven, the crown prince came to sit on the throne. Out side the throne, he stood facing the east. The Majlis wore his dress and standing before the prince advised him in the following words. ‘Treat the people as your sons, do not deceive upon the people. According to religious rites, be just in state duties, and see that the strong do not oppress the weak. Be kind, be true to your religion, be kind to good people, and punish the wicked. Try to forgive and do not be impatient, do not punish anybody for the past offence’. The king accepted all this principles, then bade Salam to the Majlis and then all others of the family of his mother.” It appears from the coin of the king that the coronation of the king was held for the second time in 1672 AD.66
The decline and fall of Arakanese Empire
In 1665 AD Moghul Empire Aurangzib ordered Shayista Khan, the viceroy of Bengal to build a fleet of boats. In 1666 AD Shayista Khan’s force of 6,500 men and 288 boats took Chittagong in 36-hours and occupied Ramu. The fall of Chittagong caused indescribable rejoicing of Bengal. It was a terrible blow to the prosperity of Arakanese and with it their century of greatness came to an end. Sanda Thudhamma’s long reign saw the power of his race passes its zenith, and his death is followed by century of chaos.67 In 1685 AD the units of Muslim archers serving the king of Arakan, got upper hand and continually reinforced by new forces from upper India. From 1685 to 1710 AD (for 25-years) the political rule of Arakan was completely in the hand of Muslims.68 Between the fall of Chittagong (1666 AD) and Sanda Wizaya (1710 AD) there were 10-kings averaging two and half years each. Three reigned only one year and two did not reign one month.69 Sanda Wizaya died in 1731 AD and was succeeded by ten kings, all of whom except Narabaya had short reign. In 1777 AD one Aung Sun, a native of Rambree Island, dethroned the reigning sovereign king Sanda Wimala Raja and proclaimed himself king and having put down a rebellion which shortly broke-out, was succeeded, in 1783 AD, by his son-in-law Thamada Raja, the last independent king of Arakan.70
Arakan under Burmese occupation
In 1784 AD Burmese king Boddawphaya sent 30,000 soldiers to conquer Arakan at the request of Rakhine noble Nagasandi and returned in February 1785 AD with the royal family and 20,000 inhabitants as prisoner. Thousand of Arakanese Muslims and Arakanese Buddhists were put to death.71 The Burmese soldiers destroyed mosques, temples, shrines, seminaries and libraries, including the Mrauk-U Royal Library. As for Arakanese Buddhists, their revered Mahamuni Image of Lord Buddha was taken away to Burma. The fall of Mrauk-U Empire was a mortal blow to the Muslims for every thing that was materially and culturally Islamic was razed to the ground.72 During 40-years of Burmese rule (1784-1824 AD) rule two third or two hundred thousands (2,00,000) of the inhabitants (Rohingyas and Rakhines) of Arakan were said to have fled to Bengal (India).73 The then British East India Company Govt. made no objection to the settlement of those people in the Southern parts of Chittagong region. The Mrauk-U City (Patriquilla) left in ruins. Today the indigenous Muslims found in and around Mandalay and Central Burma are descendants of those Rohingyas of Arakan. Similarly ethnic Inthas living in the Inle Lake in Shan Plateau are descendants of the Rakhines. However, before Burmese could consolidate their power over Arakan British occupied the Burma colony in 1824.
Arakan under British rule
In 1826 AD Arakan was annexed to the British India and it was almost depopulated. A few months after the conclusion of the treaty of Yandabo Mr. Paton, the Controller of Civil Affairs in Arakan, submitted to the British Govt. a detailed report about the character of the country (Arakan), its extent, history, population, production and manners and customs of the inhabitants. He stated the population of Arakan as 1,00,000 (Maghs – 60,000; Muslims – 30,000; Burmese – 10,000).74 So on the date of conquest of Arakan by English, there had already been living thirty thousands Muslims i.e. 30 percent of the total population of Arakan. Arakanese Muslim who entered and settled in Chittagong region during 1784–1824 AD is known as Roai in Chittagong. When peace arrived in Arakan they started to return to their forefather’s homes in Arakan. Actually, Chittagonians dared not to go to Arakan because they knew that Arakan was a “Mugher Mulluk” – the lawless country. The British completed the occupation of whole of Burma in 1885 and made it an administrative part of India.
According to 1911 Census the number of Muslim population in Akyab District is 1,78,647 and 33 percent of total population.75 Taken an over-all view, the increase was not due to the import of the Muslim labours by the British from Chittagong.
There was large-scale conversion of Buddhists to Islam during 15th to 18th centuries. It may be mentioned that when the Dutch industrialists were ordered to quit Arakan they were also not a little worried because their children left in Arakan were brought up to be Muslims.76 Muslim influence was also intensified when Moghul prince Shah Shuja, brother of Aurangzeb, fled to Arakan in 1660. King Sandathudama murdered Shuja, but his followers were retained at the court as archers of the royal guards in which role they frequently intervened as king-makers. The Rohingya population went on increasing from centuries to centuries and they were in clear majority in 1942.
Eventually, during the Second World War an estimated 500,000 Indians and Muslims fled Burma. Some were clearly following in the footsteps of the British government, but others allege that they were brutally chased out by the nationalists of Burma Independence Army or BIA. Thousands are reported to have died of starvation, disease or during sporadic military attacks in one of the darkest but least reported incidents in modern Burmese History. At that time in Arakan, many local Muslims and Buddhists said that, initially there was not really any serious trouble between two religious communities, but that it only flared up when the first BIA units entered the area (Arakan) with the Japanese Imperial Army. The BIA immediately began giving speeches about the on going expulsions of Indians and other alleged British supporters from the central Burma and asked why Rakhine nationalists were not doing the same. As a result, there was an outbreak of the first serious communal clashes from 1942 onwards.77
The Muslim massacre of 1942
On 8th December 1941, Japan declared war against British Government. On 7th March 1942, the Japanese invading forces occupied Rangoon, the capital city of Burma. On 23rd March 1942 Japan bombed the Akyab City of Arakan. The Japanese fighter planes again bombed Akyab on 24th and 27th March respectively. So, the British administration withdrawn from Akyab by the end of March 1942.78 There was an administration vacuum in Arakan following the withdrawal of British troops from the area. The Rakhine communalists in connivance with Burma Independence Army (BIA) led by Bo Rang Aung brought about a pogrom massacring about 1,00,000 innocent Rohingya Muslims, driving out 80,000 of them across the border to East Bengal, devastating their settlements and depopulating the Muslims in some parts of Arakan.79
According to Mr. Sultan Mahmud, former Health Minister and Member of Parliament from Akyab district stated that, “I refused to accept that there was a communal riot in Arakan in 1942. It was a pre-planned cold-blooded massacre. On March 28, 1942 a group of 37 soldiers who are trekking their way to Burma was intercepted, persuaded and prevail upon attack and loot the Moslem villages. The cold-blooded massacre began with an uncontrollable fury in the Moslem village of Letma on the western bank of the Lemro River in Maybon townships. It spread like a conflagration in all directions and the unsophisticated villagers with the prospect of gain joined with guns, dahs, spears and all other conceivable contrivances of destruction. Some high-minded and far-sighted Arakanese gentlemen intervened at the risk of their lives to prevent the deadly onslaught. But all their pious efforts were in vain. There was absolutely no attempt at retaliation even by way of self-defence by the Moslem and it was simply one-sided affair. Not a single Rakhine suffered even a scratch. Maybon Township in Kyaukpru District and the six townships of Minbya, Myohaung, Pauktaw, Kyauktaw, Ponnagyun and Rathidaung in Akyab district were depleted of Moslem by murder and massacre and those who escaped evacuated through long tortuous and hazardous routes across mountains to Maungdaw. Twenty Two thousand Moslem reached Subirnagar Camp in Rangpur District in India but very large number had stay behind in Maungdaw owing to lack of facilities, disease and destitution. These refugees in Maungdaw who had lost their dearest one and all their property now turned against the Rakhine and fell upon them in retaliation. This is what exactly happened in 1942 and I leave it to your impartial readers to judge whether it could be term as communal riot. There were Moslem too who saved a good number of Arakanese Buddhists from the wrath of the Moslem and brutality of the Japanese but modesty forbids me from mentioning their names. I give below the number of Moslem villages totally destroyed in the various townships in 1942. They are:
(1) Myebon in Kyaukpru District 30 villages;
(2) Minbya in Akyab District 27 villages;
(3) Pauktaw in Akyab District 25 villages;
(4) Myohaung in Akyab District 58 villages;
(5) Kyauktaw in Akyab District 78 villages;
(6) Ponnagyun in Akyab District 5 villages;
(7) Rathedaung in Akyab District 16 villages; and
(8) Buthidaung in Akyab District 55 villages.
Total 294 villages. All the villages in Buthidaung Township were re-occupied and rehabilitated by the original inhabitants and refugees after the War but not a single one in other townships.80 Soon the Rakhine Buddhists were streaming in droves from the north as the Rohingya Muslims were streaming from the south, and Arakan stood divided into two distinct territories, a Muslim north and a Buddhist south one. Since then, the traditional relation between the two sister communities deteriorated.81
Muslim State and Peace Committee
On 9th June 1942 the Rohingya Muslims of Maungdaw, Buthidaung and Rathedaung area drove the BIA and Rakhine communalists from north Arakan. On 10th June 1942 the Rohingya Muslims declared North Arakan as Muslim State and Peace Committee was entrusted for administration of the area.82 In December 1942 Brigadier C.E Lucas Phillips of British 14th Army came to Maungdaw to contact the leaders of the Rohingya Muslims. After hard negotiation, the Peace Committee formed by the Rohingya Muslims headed by Mr. Omra Meah and Mr. Zahir Uddin Ahmed allowed the British 14th Army re-entry through the Naf border town of Maungdaw. As per Public Notice No. 11-OA-CC/42 dated. 31st. December 1942, the British Military Administration declared the former Muslim State as “Muslim National Area”. During the Second World War, Rohingya Muslims helped the Allied Forces against the invading Japanese in Arakan Front. The Rohingya Muslims generally stayed loyal to the British and work with the under ground V-force, most Rakhine nationalists jointed either with the BIA or under ground Communist movement. The Rakhines only turned against the Japanese when the British re-invaded Burma in 1945. On 1st January 1945 Brigadier C.E Lucas Phillips became the Chief Administrator of the area and appointed members of Peace Committee as administrative officers of the area. This represents a landmark in the history of Burmese independence. The British recognised the Rohingya Muslims as a distinct racial group and the British officer-in-command promised the Rohingyas to grant autonomy in North Arakan.83
Arakan after Independent of Burma
After 40 years of Burmese king Bodaw Phaya’s tyrannical rule, the British colonialists annexed Arakan to British India. In 1937 the British separated Burma from India and made Arakan apart of it. A significant measure of “Home Rule” (internal self-administration) was given to her. The territory of Arakan became merely a division of the central government dominated by Burmans in 1948 under a plan pre-arranged before independence between Burman leaders and the opportunists and self-seekers in Arakan. Thus Arakan remained under colonial rule forever, with a change in her masters from the Burman to the British and then again to the Burmans. According to the London Agreement of October 7, 1947 power was handed over to the government of the Union of Burma on 4th January 1948.84 From independence in 1948 Arakan – like many other regions of Burma – was rocked by political violence. The political demands of both Muslim and Buddhist communities were both over looked by the Burmese central government in Rangoon and Arakan was not even granted ethnic statehood – although, as evidence of strong constituency support, four Muslims did win seats in elections to the new parliament. As a result, while the communists and armed Rakhine nationalists seized control of many of the towns throughout Arakan, hundreds of Rohingya armed supporters flocked to joint the popular Muslim singer, Jafar Hussain (Jafar Kawal), who had formed the first Mujahid Party in Buthidaung township in December 1947 to press for a Muslim Autonomous State in north Arakan. When the Rohingyas armed resistance movement gained momentum in 1950’s against the tyranny of the Burmese regime, the Burmese government appeased the Rohingya public by offering some governmental positions and a special district called “Mayu Frontier District”.85
On 1st May 1961, the Burmese government created the Mayu Frontier District covering Maungdaw, Buthidaung and the Western part of Rathidaung townships. It was a military administration, not autonomous rule, but as it did not involve subordination to Arakan authorities, the arrangement won the support of the Rohingya leaders, particularly since the new military administration quickly succeeded in restoring order and security to the area. When, early in 1962, the government drafted a bill for Arakan statehood, the Mayu Frontier District was not included in the territory of the projected state. After the military coup of March 1962, the new military regime led by General Ne Win cancelled the plan to grant statehood of Arakan, but the Mayu Forntier District remained under its separate Military Administration.86
Arakan under Military rule
The military regime called them the Revolutionary Council (RC) and abolished the Constitution and dissolved the Parliament of Burma. All powers of the State – legislative, judiciary and executive – had fallen automatically under the control of RC. In February,1963 the RC regime nationalised entire banks and business enterprises all over the country. In Arakan, most of the major business establishments were in the hands of Muslims. The Rohingya Muslims of Arakan were hardest hit in the economic crackdown by the new military regime. In Arakan even small grocery and rice shops of Muslims were not spared. The RC banned all political parties and floated a new political party known as Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP). In Arakan only Rakhine Maghs were inducted to new political party. Notifications were sent by RC to Arakan Division authories to restrict the movement of Rohingya Muslims. On 1st February 1964, the Revolutionary Council of Burmese military regime abolished the Mayu Frontier District and put the area again within the jurisdiction of Akyab District under the Home ministry. All Rohingya welfare and socio-cultural organisations were also banned in 1964. The military regime cancelled the Rohingya Language Programme broadcasted from Burma Broadcasting Service (BBS), Rangoon in October 1965.In 1974, the BSPP Government convened the first Peoples Congress (Pyithu Hlut Taw) which ratified the constitution drawn by BSPP. The new constitution granted State to Arakan in the Unitary structure. The new name of the state was Rakhine State and was manned by hundred percent Rakhine and Burman Buddhists.87
Since 1948, up to 1999, there have been no less than 20 major operations of eviction campaigns against the Rohingyas carried out by the successive Governments of Burma. In pursuance of the 20-year Rohingya Extermination Plan, the Arakan State Council under direct supervision of State Council of Burma carried out a Rohingya drive operation code named Naga Min or King Dragon Operation. It was the largest, the most notorious and probably the best-documented operation of 1978. The operation started on 6th February 1978 from the biggest Muslim village of Sakkipara in Akayab, which sent shock waves over the whole region within a short time. News of mass arrest of Muslims, male and female, young and old, torture, rape and killing in Akyab frustrated Muslims in other towns of North Arakan. In Mrach 1978 the operation reached at Buthidaung and Maungdaw. Hundreds of Muslim men and women were thrown into the jail and many of them were being tortured and killed. Muslim women were raped freely in the detention centres. Terrified by the ruthlessness of the operation and total uncertainty of their life, property, honour and dignity a large number Rohingya Muslims started to leave their hearths and homes to cross the Burma-Bangladesh border.88 Within 3 months more than 3,00,000 Rohingyas took shelter in makeshift camps erected by Bangladesh Government. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recognised them as genuine refugees and started relief operations. The presence of large number of Rohingya Muslim refugees attracted the attention of the world, particularly the Muslim countries. Although Burma denied, initially to accept back her people she was bogged down under international pressure. A bilateral agreement was signed on 9th. July 1978 in Dhaka between the two countries paving the way for return of the Rohingya refugees in 1979 after more than 9 months stay on the soil of Bangladesh. About 2,00,000 refugees returned home while 40,000 died in the refugee camps.89 According to Human Rights Watch/Asia reports about 30,000 Rohingya refugees were integrated locally in Bangladesh and the rest left for Middle East countries.90
Arakan under SLORC/SPDC Military rule
On September 18,1988 in dramatic turn of events a Ne Win orchestrated so-called military coup removed civilian BSPP Govt. President Maung Maung. The military in the name of State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) headed by Chief of Army Staff, Gen. Saw Maung, took over power. The SLORC massacred more than 3000 pro-democracy demonstrators before gaining full control of the situation. Students and political activists were hunted down and either thrown into torture cells or killed. A large number of them fled across the border into neighbouring countries or joined anti-government revolutionary groups based along the border. The Rohingya Muslims of Arakan have to bear the brunt of SLORC’s wrath. The SLORC started to take vengeance on the Rohingya Muslims. SLORC held a General Election on May 27, 1990. The opposition NLD won bulk of the seats. So, SLORC refused to recognise the results of the General Election. When the masses are becoming restive as a result of the refusal to hand over power, the SLORC employed the old method of diverting the attention of the masses from the real burning issues by creating a new Rohingya drive campaign.91
In 1991-92 a more dreadful Rohingya drive extermination campaign code named “Pyi Thaya”, had been launched on 18th July 1991 by deploying thousands of brute troops by SLORC in Arakan. A new wave of violence and persecution fell upon the Rohingyas such as killing, raping of women, destruction of Muslim settlements, holy places of worship, religious institutions, and Muslim relics, confiscation of land, detention, portering and slave labour and various other atrocities rose sharply in early 1991. As a result, again Rohingyas began to leave their homeland in the thousands to seek asylum as refugees in neighbouring Bangladesh. The Rohingya refugee crisis that began in September 1991 with 10,000 refugees entering Bangladesh had reached its peak by mid-1992 when the refugee population rose to more than 2,68,000. Rohingya Muslims who fled into Bangladesh as refugees were mainly sheltered in 20 camps with a few residing outside the camps. The camps are located mainly on both sides of the Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf highway, popularly known as the Arakan road. Despite its meagre resources, Bangladesh provided food and shelter to the Rohingya refugees. This time the refugees came mainly from Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Rathidaung and Akyab townships of Arakan State.92 International agencies and NGOs later on came to their help. Under Bangladesh-Burma bilateral agreement signed on 29th April 1992 a total of 2,29,877 Rohingya refugees were repatriated to Arakan. More than 20,000 Rohingya refugees are awaiting repatriation with deep frustration because of the slow pace of their repatriation.93
The history of Arakan on the whole is not at all a complicated one, but it has been made to be so by some interested intelligentsia in Arakan and Burma proper. Above all, the Burman king Bodawpaya who plundered Mrauk-U in 1784 AD is basically responsible for the destruction of every things that was Islamic in Arakan. He is also responsible of getting the History of Arakan written by U Kala, on the basis of two unauthentic Magh chronicles which were absolutely devoid of everything about the Rohingya Muslims. Universal man cannot forget his history. So, we cannot abandon and cynically consign the past history of Rohingya people to oblivion. Whatever so far has been found written about the Muslims of Arakan are merely collateral and mostly corrupted. Anyway, truth cannot be suppressed for long. It will come to light sooner or later.
Notes and References
1. Mohammed Ali Chowdhury, The Advent of Islam in Arakan and Rohingyas, The Annual Magazine 1995-96, Arakan Historical Society (A.H.S), Chittagong, Bangladesh, 1996, P.24; Rohingya Outcry and Demands, Rohingya Patriotic Front (RPF), Arakan (Burma), 1976, P.20; M. Sahabuddin, Arakan in Historical Perspective, The Monthly Bulletin of the Bangladesh Institute of Law and International Affairs, Vol.1, April 1978, No.4.
2. Moshe Yegar, The Muslims of Burma, A study of Minority groups, Weesbaden, Otto Harrassowitz, 1972, P.18; Natmagh Bon Kyaw, History of Anglo-Burmese War (in Burmese), Pagan Publisher, Rangoon, 1975, P.7.
3. Amanullah, The Etymology of Arakan, THE ARAKAN, Vol.10, Issue 2, July 1997, P.4.
4. Ibid. P.4 -5.
5. The High School Geography of Burma (in Burmese), The Textbook Committee, Ministry of Education, The Socialist Republic of Union of Burma, Rangoon, 1975, P.283; Nurul Islam, The Rohingya Problem, Arakan Rohingya National Organisation (ARNO), Arakan (Burma), 1999, P.2
6. San Tha Aung, The Buddhist Art of Ancient Arakan, Daw Saw Saw Sapay, Rangoon, 1979, P.2; Nurul Islam, The Rohingya Problem, ARNO, Arakan (Burma), 1999, op. cit., P.3.
7. Dr. Ganganath Jaha (Jawaharal Nehru University), Rohingya Imbroglio: The Implication for Bangladesh in S.R.Chakaravaty (Edited) Foreign Policy of Bangladesh, New Delhi, 1994, P.293; The Manifesto of Arakan Rohingya National Organisation (ARNO), Arakan (Burma), 1999, P.3 ; The Genocide of the Rohingya Muslims of Arakan in Burma, Rohingya Reader I, Burma Centrum Nederland, Amsterdam, October 1995, PP. 92-93.
8. G.E Harvey, History of Burma, London, 1928, P.137, P.369 – 372.
9. D.G.E Hall, A History of South-East Asia, New York, 1977, P.389.
10. Ibid. P.389.
11. M.S Collis, Arakan’s Place in the Civilisation of the Bay, Journal of Burma Research Society 50th Anniversary Publications No.2, Rangoon, 1960, P.486.
12. Ibid. P.487.
13. Dr. S.B Qanungo, A History of Chittagong, Vol.1, Chittagong, 1988, PP. 110, 116.
14. M.Siddiq Khan, Muslims Intercourse with Burma, Islamic Culture, Vol. X, Hydrabad, July 1936, P.418.
15. M.A. Taher Ba Tha, The Rohingyas and Kamans (in Burmese), Published by United Rohingya National League, Myitkyina (Burma), 1963, P.6 – 7; Maung Than Lwin, Rakhine Kala or Rohingya, The Mya Wadi Magazine, issue July 1960, PP.72-73; N.M Habibullah, Rohingya Jatir Itihas (History of the Rohingyas), Bangladesh Co-Operative Book Society Ltd., Dhaka, 1995, PP.32-33.
16. R.B. Smart, Burma Gazetteer – Akyab District, Vol.A, Rangoon, 1957, P.19.
17. Rohingya Outcry and Demands, RPF, op. cit., PP.36-37.
18. A.S. Bahar, The Arakani Rohingyas in Burmese Society, M.A. Thesis (unpublished), University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada, 1981, PP. 24-25; Alan Clements and Leslie Kean, Burma’s Revolution of the Sprit, the Struggle for Democratic Freedom and Dignity, White Orchid Press, Bangkok, 1995, P.30; Mohammed Ali Chowdhury, The Advent of Islam in Arakan and Rohingyas, A.H.S, op. cit., P.29; N.M Habibullah, Rohingya Jatir Itihas (History of the Rohingyas), op. cit., Dhaka, 1995, PP.32-33.
19. M.S. Collis, JBRS, 50th Anniversary No.2, op. cit., P.488.
20. Shamsuddin Ahmed, Glimpses into the History of the Burmese and Chinese Muslim, Chittagong, 1978, P.72.
21. Satyendra Nath Ghosal, Missing Links in Arakan History, Abdul Karim Sahitya Visarad Commemoration Volume, Asiastic Society of Bangladesh, Dacca, 1972, P. 257.
22. Dr. Abdul Mabub Khan, The Maghs, Dhaka, 1999, op. cit.; P.8.
23. M.S. Collis, JBRS, 50th Anniversary No.2, op. cit., P.489.
24. G.E. Harvey, History of Burma, London, 1925, P.138 – 139.
25. Moshe Yegar, The Muslims of Burma, 1972, op. cit., P.18.
26. Ibid. P. 18.
27. M.S. Collis, JBRS, 50th Anniversary No.2, op. cit., P.491.
28. M.A. Taher Ba Tha, The Rohingyas and Kamans, op. cit., P.17.
29. The Journal of Rakhine Welfare Association (Rangoon), No.2, 1996, The 12 Towns of Bengal
30. Moshe Yegar, The Muslims of Burma, 1972, op. cit., P. 18 – 19; S.N.S Rizvi (Edited), Bangladesh District Gazetteers: Chittagong, Dacca, 1970, P.62 – 63.
31. M.S. Collis, JBRS 50th Anniversary, Vol. 2, op. cit., P.493.
32. U Aung Tha Oo, Rakine Rajawan (in Burmese), Mya Radana Press, Rangoon, P.55
33. Moshe Yegar, The Muslims of Burma, 1972, op. cit., p.19; R.C Majumdar, The Delhi Sultanate, PP. 203, 211-212; Dr. Abdul Mabub Khan, The Maghs, Dhaka, 1999, op. cit.; PP. 22-23.
34. Moshe Yegar, The Muslims of Burma, 1972, op. cit.; P.19; M.S. Collis, JBRS, 50th Anniversary No.2, op. cit., P.493; G.E. Harvey, History of Burma, op. cit., PP.138 – 139; D.G.E Hall, A History of South-East Asia, op. cit., PP. 329-330; Lt. Col. Ba Shin, Coming of Islam to Burma 1700 AD, Rangoon 1961, PP. 4 – 6; Rizvi (Edited), Bangladesh District Gazetteers: Chittagong, op. cit., P.63.
35. Dr. Enamul Haq O Abdul Karim Shahitya Bisharad, Arakan Rajshabhay Bangla Shahitya, Calcutta, 1935, PP. 4-12.
36. Dr. Muhammad Mohar Ali, History of the Muslims of Bengal, Vol.1B, Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, K.S.A, 1985, P.865; M. Siddiq Khan, op. cit., P.249; Geoffrey Barraclough (Edited), The Times Atlas of World History, London, 1985, P.133.
37. Dr. Qanungo, A History of Chittagong, Vol.1, op. cit., P.230
38. Ibid. P.232
39. Dr. Abdul Mabub Khan, The Magh, Dhaka, 1999, op, cit., PP. 22-23.
40. Dr. Muhammad Mohar Ali, History of the Muslims of Bengal, Vol.1B, op. cit.1985, PP.866-868; Rizvi (Edited), Bangladesh District Gazetteers: Chittagong, op. cit., PP. 63, 348-349.
41. Lt. Col. Ba Shin, Coming of Islam to Burma 1700 AD, op. cit., P.5; Dr. Qanungo, A History of Chittagong, Vo. 1, op. cit., P. 233, 239, 250 & 271; Moshe Yegar, The Muslims of Burma, 1972, op. cit., P.19; Siddiq Khan, op. cit., PP. 248-249; Harvey, op. cit., P140; D.G.E Hall, op. cit., P.330; ABM Habibullah, Arakan in Pre-Mughal History of Bengal, JASB, 1945, PP. 34-35.
42. M.S. Collis, JBRS 50th Anniversary, Vol. 2, op. cit., P.493.
43. Dr. Qanungo, A History of Chittagong, Vol.1, op. cit., P.179.
44. M.S. Collis, JBRS 50th Anniversary No.2, op. cit., P.494.
45. M.S. Collis, JBRS 50th Anniversary No.2, op. cit., P.494.
46. Moshe Yegar, The Muslims of Burma, 1972, op., cit., P.20; G.E. Harvey, History of Burma, op. cit., PP. 143-144; Siddiq Khan, op. cit., P.251; Taher Ba Tha, Salve Raids in Bengal or Heins in Arakan, The Guardian Monthly, Rangoon, Vol. VII, October 1960, PP. 25-27.
47. Moshe Yegar, The Muslims of Burma, 1972, PP. 19-20.
48. Ibid. P.494; Rizvi (Edited), Bangladesh District Gazetteers: Chittagong, op. cit., P.67.
49. Dr. Qanungo, A History of Chittagong, Vo.1, op. cit., P.233.
50. Ibid. PP. 239 – 240.
51. Moshe Yegar, The Muslims of Burma, 1972, P.20.
52. Jamini Mohan Ghosh, Maghs Raider in Bengal, Bookland Private Ltd. Calcutta, 1960, P.1.
53. G.E.Harvey, The History of Burma, op. cit., PP.142 – 144.
54. Satyendra Nath Ghosal, Missing Links in Arakan History, Abdul Karim Sahitya Visarad Commemoration Volume, Asiastic Society of Bangladesh, Dacca, 1972, P. 257.
55. Moshe Yegar, The Muslims of Burma, 1972, P.20; Harvey, The History of Burma, op. cit., P.145.
56. Dr. Qanungo, A History of Chittagong, Vol. 1, op. cit., P.271.
57. Ibid. PP.271 – 272.
58. Dr. Abdul Karim, The Rohingyas, A Short Account of Their History and Culture (in press}, PP. 48-50; Shitya Patrika, Winter, 1364 B.S. PP.57– 60 and P.83.
59. Sayed Sajjad Hussain, A Descriptive Catalogue of Bengali Manuscripts, Asiatic Society of Pakistan, Dacca, Publication No.3,1960, PP.281– 82; Dr. Abdul Karim, The Rohingyas, op. cit., PP.53-55
60. Ibid. P.507; Dr. Abdul Karim, The Rohingyas, op. cit., PP.55-57.
61. Ibid. P. 282; Dr. Abdul Karim, The Rohingyas, op. cit., PP.66-70.
62. M. Siddiq Khan, The Tragedy of Mrauk-U (1660 – 1661), Journal of the Asiatic Society of Pakistan, Vol. XI, No.2, August 1966, P.198.
63. G.E. Harvey, Outline of Burmese History, Longmans, London, 1947, PP.95 – 96; Rizvi (Edited), Bangladesh District Gazetteers: Chittagong, op. cit., P.83.
64. Dr. Abdul Karim, The Rohingyas, op. cit., PP.69-70; Sahitya Patrika, op. cit, PP.140 – 141.
65. Dr. Ahmed Sharif, Alaol Birachita Sikandernama, Dhaka 1977/ 1384 B.S., P.P.29–30; Dr. Abdul Karim. , The Rohingyas, op. cit., PP.59-61.
66. Ibid. PP. 26 – 27; Dr. Abdul Karim. , The Rohingyas, op. cit., PP.61-63.
67. G.E.Hervey, History of Burma, London, 1925, PP.147 – 148.
68. D.G.E. Hall, A Short History of Southeast Asia, 3rd Edition, 1977, P.401.
69. M.S. Collis, JBRS, 50th Anniversary No.2, op. cit., P.498.
70. R.B. Smart, Burma Gazetteers – Akyab District, Vol.A, Rangoon, 1957, P.27.
71. G.E.Harvey, History of Burma, London, 1925, op. cit., PP.267 – 268.
72. Rohingya Outcry and Demands, RPF, 1976, P.33; Dr. Mohammed Yunus, A History of Arakan Past and Present, 1994, P.92.
73. M.S. Collis, JBRS, 50th Anniversary No.2, op. cit., P.499; Muhammad Ishaque (Edited), Bangladesh District Gazetteers: Chittagong Hill Tracts, Dacca, 1971, P.33.
74. A.C. Banarjee, The Eastern Frontier of British India, Calcutta, India, 1964, PP.350 – 351.
75. R.B. Smart, Burma Gazetteer – Akyab District, Vol.A, Rangoon, 1957, P.83.
76. D.G.E Hall, Studies in Dutch Relation with Arakan, JBRS 50th Anniversary No.2, P.72.
77. Martin Smith, The Muslim Rohingyas of Burma, Rohingya Reader II, Burma Centrum Nederland, Amsterdam, October 1996, P.10.
78. Advocate Kalilur Rahaman, Karballa-i- Arakan (Urdu), Calcutta, 1946, P.15;  Dr. Mohammed Yunus, A History of Arakan Past and Present, 1994, P.105.
79. The Manifesto of ARNO, Arakan (Burma), op. cit., 1999, P.7.
80. Sultan Mahmud, Muslims in Arakan, THE NATION, Rangoon, Sunday, April 12, 1959.
81. Moshe Yegar, The Muslims of Burma, THE CRESCENT IN THE EAST, Edited by Dr. Raphael Israeli, London, 1982, P.123 and A. Irwin, Burmese Outpost, London, 1945, P.23.
82. The History of Maungdaw Township (in Burmese) complied by the Township Peoples Council, Maungdaw, 1980, P.65.
83. Mohamed Ashraf Alam, The Memories of Al-Haj Master Hasson Ali (1898 – 1985), Master is a closed friend of Master Omera Meah who was President of Peace Committee of North Arakan (1942-1945); Records and Documents of Dr. Mohamed Ayub Ali, a closed assistant of Jafar Kawal who collected various documents and records of Rohingya Movement.
84. The Manifesto of ARNO, Arakan (Burma), 1999, PP.6 – 7.
85. Martin Smith, The Muslim Rohingyas of Burma, Rohingya Reader II, Burma Centrum Nederland, Amsterdam, October 1996, P.11.
86. Moshe Yegar, The Muslims of Burma, The Crescent in the East, Edited by Dr. Raphael Israli, London, 1982, P.128.
87. Dr. Mohammed Yunus, A History of Arakan Past and Present, 1994, PP.148 – 150.
88. Genocide in Burma against the Muslims of Arakan, Rohingya Patriotic Front (RPF), Arakan (Burma), April 11, 1978, PP.2 – 4; Dr. Mohammed Yunus, A History of Arakan Past and Present, 1994, PP.158 – 159.
89. Dr. Mohammed Yunus, A History of Arkan Past and Present, 1994, PP.160
90. The Rohingya Muslims Ending a Cycle of Exodus, Human Rights Watch/Asia, Vol.8, No.9(C), New York, September 1996, P.20.
91. Ibid. P.11.
92. Abdur Razzaq and Mahfuzul Haque, A Tale of Refugees: Rohingyas in Bangladesh, The Centre for Human Rights, Dhaka, 1995, PP.12, 22.
93. The Daily Star, Dhaka, September 13, 1999, Slow Pace of Repatriation Frustrates Rohingyas.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Rohingya Documents

1.Rohingya in Bangladesh
2.History of Arakan
3.An open prison for the Rohingya in Burma
4.Between Integration and Secession by Moshe Yega
5.We Are Like a Soccer Ball -2003 by Chris Lewa
6.Rape Force labor and religious persecution in Arakan by Asia Watch (1992)
7.Encyclopedia of the South East Asia Ethnography (Arakan)
8.History of Arakan by Gutman Palmela
9.Arakan Past-Present-Future by John Ogilvy JP
10.10 Years Rohingyas Past Present and future by MSF
11.Repertration Rohingya Refugee in 1978 by C A Abrar
12.The Etymology of Arakan by Noor Kamal
13.Crime against humanity in western Burma, Rohingya by Irish Human Right
14.Old Arakan by U Shan Shwe Bu
15.Phd thesis paper on Arakanese religious by Michel W.Chrney‘s
16.A history of emporer Aurangzeb Alamgir by Maasir-i-Alamgiri
17.History of Portugal and the Portuguese Impire 2
18.The Arakan Project 2010 by Chris Lewa
19.Treatment of Ethnic Rohingya Minorities by Tukumi Ogawa
20.A short history of Rohingya by U Ba Tha
21.Rohingya in Bangladesh
22.Easy Target By Karen Human Right Group
23.Rohingyas Tears Down the Cheeks
24.Human Rights Abuses and Discrimination on Rohingyas by Zaw Min Htut
25.Do you know that I am Rohingya ?
26.Refugees from Myanmar by International Commission of Jurists
27.Just Imagine That You Are a Rohingya by Dr.Habib Siddqui
28.Ethinic Cleansing in Arakan 2000 by FIDH
29.Arakan Present-Past-Future by J- Qgilvy Hay J P
30.A Short Historical Background of Arakan by Mohammed Ashraf Alam
31..Rohingyas Boat People by Grass Roots
32.All Burmese Muslim in Myanmar
33.A Rohingya Histroy by Noor Kamal
34..Displaced People
35.Genocide and gross human right violation 
36. Where are you from my friend?

A Short History of Rohingya by U Ba Tha

A Short History of Rohingya and Kamas of Burma

M.A Tahir Ba Tha (translated by A.F.K Jilani, edited by Mohd. Ashraf Alam) Editor and Publisher’s note “A SHORT HISTORY OF ROHINGYAS AND KAMANS OF BURMA” is an English translation and edited version of “ROHINGYAS AND KAMANS” of Mr. M. A. Tahir Ba Tha. The Rohingyas and Kamans of M. A. Tahir Ba Tha is a landmark in the history of Rohingya people. History is dynamic; not static; it is a process of change and movement in time.
The book was first printed and published in Burmese in 1963 and it was the only printed history book of Rohingyas by a Rohingya in Burmese. The Board of Directors of the Institute of Arakan Studies, Bangladesh consider it an honour to publish the book in English in the name of “A SHORT HISTORY OF ROHINGYAS AND KAMANS OF BURMA” and present it to the readers and researchers of Rohingya and Arakan, both at home and abroad. Retaining the original contents of the book we have endeavoured to convey a sense of history as a continuing process. We have taken pains to incorporate the results of the most recent research and some maps of political events and changes in political geography. It may be mentioned here that till today we have not found a full, comprehensive history of Rohingyas and Kamans either in Burmese or in English so far. So, the Directors of the Institute requested to Mr. A.F.K Jilani to translate Mr. M.A. Tahir Ba Tha’s “The Rohingyas and Kamans” into English. He had done it without hesitation and delay. The Board of Directors of the Institute of Arakan Studies, Bangladesh express their sincere thanks and gratitude to Mr. A. F. K. Jilani and their valued members and partons who have helped them generously, by providing much needed funds to publish this book. The Institute has decided to publish more on Rohingya and Arakan gradually and to restore them for future Generation. This book is primarily a discussion on the history of Rohingyas and Kamans. The motive in this presentation and translation is the circulation of Rohingyas’ views on their history to the people of Burma and Bangladesh particularly and the world at large. We shall consider our efforts rewarded if the readers find this modest attempts of mine to be of some use in knowing the Rohingya people who are still far behind the time. Mohamed Ashraf Alam Chittagong.
31/08/1998. FOREWORD The history of Rohingyas and Kamans, by M. A. Tahir Ba Tha, deals the advent of Rohingyas in Arakan since 7th century A.D. He has explored an enormously wide field in digging up many materials from various sources. According to history, Islam reached Arakan before 788 A.D. and it attracted the local people to come to the fold of Islam en masse all over Burma. Since then Islam had played an important part towards the advancement of civilization in Arakan. From 1430 to 1784 A.D. Arakan was a Sultanate. Muslims and Buddhists lived side by side for centuries with amity and concord as one family and ruled the country together. The position of the Muslims of Arakan was glorious during the time of Mrauk-U Empire but their position was down trodden during the 40 years of Burmese occupation. During British rule too, they had been discriminated and blindfolded by the British so much so that none of the Muslims could hold a single high position in the government. As they were the conqueror of the Muslim Moghul Empire, the British politically kept the Muslims of subcontinent and that of Arakan uneducated, unhealthy and undeveloped. The British played divide and rule in Arakan, with the result that many of the Arakanese Buddhist brethern bear hatred against the Muslim Rohingyas and threat them as “Kalas” (foreigners). This hatred should no longer be bred in the Union of Burma as it had been brought up in the nursery of British imperilism. Unfortunately, the same policy is now adopted by the ruling military junta of Burma. The Rohingyas of Arakan have been together as an indigenous race in a group from time immemorial. Still, their sister community, the Rakhine Maghs, intentionally branded Rohingyas as the illegal immigrants from a neighbouring country. Their false allegations reputed by M. A. Tahir Ba Tha by writing articles in the Daily Mirror, Kaba-Alin and the Guardian Magazines of Rangoon in 1960s. When he was transferred to Myitkyina city of Kachin State, as a Bank manager, he was requested to write a book on the History of Rohingyas by the Executive Committee members of the United Rohingya National League (U.R.N.L), Myitkyina. At their request this book “History of Rohingyas and Kamans” was written in Burmese by M. A. Tahir Ba Tha and duly published by the United Rohingya National League of Myitkyina, Burma. Moreover, with the collection of M. A. Tahir Ba Tha’s articles from the Guardian Magazines and the Kaba Alin Magazines. “A Short History of Rohingyas” was compiled and published by the United Rohingyas National League of Rangoon in 1960. M. A. Tahir Ba Tha is a native of Rohingyadaung village of Buthidaung Township. He is now residing in Ran-goon with his family passing his retired life. He wrote- another book entitled
“FAITHFUL ROHINGYAS” but unable to publish. His articles and booklet on Rohingyas played important source of documents for the historical background of Rohingya nation. The Institute of Arakan Studies, Bangladesh, requested me to translate the History of Rohingyas and Kamans, by M. A. Tahir Ba Tha. On their request, I have translated it with my poor knowledge of Rohingya history and English literature. If this translation could contribute for the history of our people, then I will be satisfied with my work. I expect the blessing of Almighty Allah. A. F. K. Jilani 20/2/1998 Author’s Preface In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. “Verily never Will Allah change the condition of a people until they change what is in themselves.” (The Holy Quran, Sura 13:11) As I am neither a perfect historian nor a man of literature, my presentations of the historical references and the placing of the sentences, phrases, idioms, words may be in crude positions. If so, my earnest request to the esteemed readers is to read it in correct and smooth way. As per above Quranic verse I tried my best to dig up many materials from various sources. I write this booklet at the request of the United Rohingya Nationlal League of Myitkyina, Burma with the object of enriching the knowledge of the history of Rohingyas and Kamans to all citizens of the Union of Burma. M. A. Tahir Ba Tha 31/12/1963 Chapter I INTRODUCTION The Union of Burma with an area of about 2, 61,610 sq. miles was born on 4 January 1948. It is a multi-national, multi-cultural and multi- religious country collectively owned by various peoples and ethnic races. About 60% of the country’s populations are non-Burmans mostly in-habiting in the states/provinces. They are Shan, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Kayah, Mon, Pa-o, Palaung, Padaung, Naga. Lahu, Akha, Wa, Rohingya (Arakanese Muslim), Rakhine (Arakanese Buddhist) and many other indigenous races. Arakan is the north-western province of the Union of Burma. It is a narrow mountainous strip of land with 360 miles coastal belt from the Bay of Bengal. It is bounded by Bay of Bengal on the west, Chin Hills on the north-east. It borders 176 miles with the People’s Republic of Bangladesh,
48 miles of which is covered by river Naf and is a natural physiographic unit clearly divided from the rest of Burma by the mountain range of Arakan Yoma running north to south. Arakan covers an area of about 20,000 sq.miles. The Arakan Hill tracts district (5235 sq.miles) bordering India and southern most part from Kyauk Chaung river to Cape Negaris were partitioned from Arakan mainland without the native people’s concern. Arakan is now reduced to 14,200 sq. miles. Arakan is blessed with geographical diver-sities. In all, there are seven rivers in Arakan. They are the Naf, the Mayu, the Kaladan, the Lemro, the Ann, the Taungup and the Sandoway.The four major navigable rivers are the Naf, Mayu, Kaladan and Lemro and all they are situated in the Northern Arakan. All these four rivers are tidal and easily navigable all the year round. Akyab is situated on the seacoast at the mouth of the Kaladan River and it is the Capital of Arakan since 1826 AD. Arakan is inhabited by two major ethnic races, the Rohingyas and the Rakhines (Maghs). The Rohingyas are Muslims and the Maghs are Buddhists. At present, the Rohingyas and the Maghs stand at almost in equal proportion with about two lacs tribal people [Saks, Dinets (Chakmas) and Mros (Kamis)]. The Rohingyas are mostly concentrated in the riparian plains of Naf, Mayu and Kaladan. Arakan is the only Muslim majority province among the 14 provinces of Burma. Out of the 7 million Muslim population of Burma half of them are in Arakan. Under different periods of history Arakan had been an independent sovereign monarchy ruled by Hindus, Buddhists and Muslims. After Bengal became Muslim in 1203 A.D., Islamic influence grew in Arakan to the extent of establishing Muslim vassal state begining in 1430 A.D. Muslim’s rule and influence in Arakan lasted for more than 350 years until it was invaded and occupied by Burmans in 1784 A.D. Then the British occupied Arakan in 1824 A.D. annexing it to former British India. When Burma was seperated from British India in 1937, Arakan was made a part of British Burma against the wishes of its people and thus finally Arakan became a province of independent Burma in 1948. Rohingya is not the people who suddenly appeared in Arakan. According to the historical evidences, they were descendants of the Arabs who arrived 1200-years back. Rohingyas and Kamans are the two people of Arakan who profess Islam. In the following chapters we will study and discuss the coming of Arab Muslims, the Tibeto-Burmans, the Pathan Muslims from Bengal and the Moghul Muslims from India to Arakan. Then we will trace the ethnic identity of ethnic Rohingyas and Kamans. Chapter II COMING OF THE ARAB MUSLIMS TO ABAKAN
The Arab Muslims first came into contact the Indian Subcontinent and South-East Asia through trade and commerce. From the times long past, spices, cotton fabrics, precious stones, minerals and other commodities from South and South-East Asia were of great demand in the oriental and European countries. The Arabs as a seafaring nation almost monopolized this trade between the South and South-East Asia on the one hand the oriental, north African and European countries on the other. The Arab merchants carried goods to the ports of Mascot and that of Siraf on the two sides of the Persian Gulf, Basra, Yemen, Jeddah, Quizum (Suez), for exchage with the goods of the merchants of the Middle Eastern, Central Asian. North African and European countries. For about eight centuries they monopolized the trade between the East and the West. The Arabs were born traders, and after the introduction of Islam they became a great maritime people. Their profound knowledge in navigation, in the science of latitude and longitude, in astronomical phenomena and in the geography of the countries they visited made them unrivalled in mercantile activities in the Indian Ocean for centuries together. The Arabs used to write about the places they had visited which indicate their arrivals at East and the West of the world. The land Jazirat-al-Rahmi or Rahma mentioned by Arab geographers of 9th and 10th centuries may have been referred to the kingdom of Raham (God blessed land) corrupted later to Rohang / Roshang / Roang. Ibn Khordadzbeh(844-48 A.D.),a Persian traveller from Basara (in Ferrand) said that Jazirat-al-Rahmi came after Sarandip (Cyelon) and contained peculiar unicorn animals and little naked people. Arab geographers, Persian travellers and marchants such as Sulymen (851 A.D.) Yaqubi (880 A.D.), Ibn al Fakih (902 A.D.), Masudi (943 A.D.), HudulAl-Alam (982 A.D.) and Marvazi (1120 A.D.) also referred Delta region of Burma and Arakan as Rahama. They and many other travellers used route over Arakan yoma to travel to Burma and then to China. But Ibn Batuta wrote the name of Arakans as Arkan, derived from the Arabic word Al-Rukun. The authors of the Ain-i-Akbar, Baharistan-i- Ghaibi and Siyar-ul-Mutakherin wrote it as Arkhang, which appears also with a slight change in Alamgirnama and Fathya-i-ibria is close to the name Arakan. In the medieval Bengali literary works and Rennell’s map the name of Arakan is written Roshang. To the Portuguese and other European travellers mentioned it Arracan, Arracoo, Orrakan, Arrakan and Van Linscoten writes it Arakan which is nearest to the modern name. The British government turned Arakan from Arkan. As a matter of fact the name was given by the Muslim Arabs. The meaning is land of peace. The celebrated 17th century Arakan court poet Sayed Shah Alawal who composed the famous ballad on the lamentations of Ameena, the youngest daughter of the ill-fated Moghul prince Shah Shuja after his death, amply mentioned about the kingdom of Rohang and Rohingyas. The poet similarly referred to Rohang and Rohingyas in his two other popular ballads: Saiful Mulk Badiuzzamal and Sikander Nama. Also Arakan court poets Qazi Daulat in his book Lorchandrani O Satimaina 1622-30 A. D, and Mardan in his book Nasib Nama 1631-38 A.D, Arakan was mentioned as Roshango country. From all the above facts and evidences it has become crystal clear that the indigenous name of Arakan was Rohang, a term used first by Arabs.
Also, Arab Muslim traders had good contacts with Arakan, Burma, Indochina, Indonesia, Malay etc. with their trade and they propagated the religion of Islam in those countries. The arrival of Mohammad Hanif son of Hazarat Ali to Arakan is also narrated in a book written in 16th century by Shah Barid Khan named Hanifa O Kaiyapuri. “In 680 A.D. after the war of “Karbala”. Mohammad Hanif with his army arrived at Arabshah para, near Maungdaw in the Northern Arakan, while Kayapuri, the queen of cannibals ruled this hilly deep forest attacking and looting the people of Arakan. Mohammad Hanif attacked the cannibals and captured the queen. She was converted to Islam and married to him. Her followers embraced Islam enmasse. Mohammed Hanif and queen Kayapuri lived in Mayu range. The peaks where they lived were still known as Hanifa Tonki and Kayapuri Tonki. The wild cannibals were tamed and became civilized. Arakan was no more in danger of them and peace and tranquility prevailed. The followers of Mohamed Hanif and Kayapuri were mixed up and lived peacefully. The descedents of these mixed people are no doubt formed the original nucleus of the Rohingyas in Arakan.” The regular contact of Arab Muslims with Arakan came through trade and commerce during 8th century A.D. and since Islam started spreading in the region. After advent of Islam in Arabia, the Muslims followed the footprints of their fore-fathers in trade and commerce. These Arab Muslim merchants made regular contact with Arakan. In those days the Arabs were very much active in sea-trade, they even monopolised the trade and commerce in the East. After the death of Prophet Mohammd (S.M), in 712 A. D. there was a dispute between the Arab king and king Dehir of Sind of west India on a Arab trade ship which arrived at the port of Gipal. The Arab General Mohammad Ibn Kasim conquered the Sind with an army of six thousand. Since that time a large number of Muslims began to arrive in India. Mr. Harvey wrote in the History of Burma that the Muslim built up mosques and Bader Mokans in India, Arakan, Burma, Malayu, Indonesia and China. Arakan became prosperous with the trade of Arab Muslim traders. From 7th century to 16th century the Arab Muslims were very powerful and they were master of trade from Persian Gulf to Indonesia. Country of Raham or-Arakan hed been an independent for many centuries due to its geographical location with occasional short breaks. It was ruled by various legendry Indian dynasties and made their capital at Dinnawadi (Dhanyavati), Vesali, Pinsa, Prin, Krit, Launggyet and Maruk-U along the river Lemro. According to M. S. Collis, “in 788 AD, a dynasty, knowns as Chandras, founded the city of Vesali in North-Arakan. This city became a noted trade port to which as many as a thousand ships came annually……. their territory extended as far north as Chittagong…Vesali was an easterly Hindu kingdom of Bengal….” In 8th century while Arakan was ruled by Maha Chandras of Wessali Kyauklayga dynasty and Burma was ruled by Pagan Pikthonmin – many Arab traders arrived at Ramawadi, Wessali, Thaton, Muttama, Syriam and other ports. These were written by the Arabs in their diaries after
800 A.D. In their diaries they recorded that they found precious stones, spices, peafowls tails, rhinoceroses’ horns, etc. in Arakan and Burma. According to the British Burma Gazetteers and Burma Gazetteers (Akyab District) published in 1879 and 1957, “about 788 A.D. Mhataing Sandya ascended the throne, founded a new city (Vesali) on the site of old Ramawadi and died after a reign of twenty two years. In his reign several ships were wrecked on Ramree island and the crews, said to have been Mohamedans, were sent to Arakan Proper and settled in villages. They were Moor Arab Muslims.” Those Arab crews sought sympathy of the people of the island, uttering the Arabic word “Rahma”. So they were called Rahma people. The Rohingyas of Arakan are also the descendants of these Arab people. Those Arab crews and traders were sheltered at Ramree, the king ordered to bring them to Arakan proper as Ramree was small and danger of over population. The king was very sympathetic towards them. They settled in Arakan and some turned from traders to farmers. In course of their trading activities in this part of the world the Arabs colonised in and around Arakan first and afterward begin to penetrate interior part of Burma. They paved the way for the influx of Muslims Saints, Sufis, Faqirs and Sages in Arakan and East Bengal. Those Sages used to visit the remote conners of the provinces only to preach their true religion Islam among the infidels and to dedicate their lives to the service of humanity and the oppressed and suppressed people of the land. The superior moral character and high missionary zeal of those followers attracted large number of people towards Islam who embraced it enmasse. The Arabs presence in Arakan continued upto the 17th Century A.D.,when European traders sailed to the Eastern Seas. The Arabs developed a port city in Arakan known as Akyab. The Arabic version Ak-Ab means ‘Place of a river meeting the sea.’ The Arabs also extended their trade from the Red Sea to China. There is no doubt that the following river Kaladan, Lemro, Mayu or Kalapansi and Naf are Arabic. The Arabs also name the Island as Rambree Island and Chowdoba Island. The Arab Muslim married the indigenous women and Islam spread among the local people.Their children were engaged in the service of the kings of Arakan. Afterward they migrated to the fertile valleys of Lemro, Kaladan, Mayu and Naf. They also migrated to other places which we called today Akyab, Kyaukpyu, Kyauknimaw and Sandoway townships. Chapter III COMING OF THE TIBETO-BURMAN TO ARAKAN Before 10th century, Arakan was inhabited by Hindus. At that time Arakan was the gate of Hindu India to contact with the countries of the east. Morris Collis writes in his book “Burma under the iron heels of British” that the Hindu ruled Arakan from first century to 10th century. Hindu civilization and literature spread all over Arakan d’-”ring this long thousand years. After the
vanishing of the Hindu civilization there still remain the names, Danyawadi, Ramawadi, Maygawadi and Dwarawadi, the four-Wadis given by Hindus. Temples built by Hindus, coins melted by Hindus and the stone inscriptions written by Hindus were still to be found in Arakan. According to A.P. Phayre and G, E, Harvey, History of Burma state that: “The capital of Arakan was successively Thaveiktaung, Dinnyawadi, 25 kings (146-746 AD) and Vesali, 12 kings (788994)-AD) dawn to eleventh century. First Pyinsa (Sandawut), 15 kings (1018-1103 AD), Parin, 8 kings (1103-1167 AD), Krit, 4 kings (1167-1180 AD), Second Pyinsa, 16 kings (1180-1237 AD), Launggyet, 17 kings (1237-1433 AD)and Mrauk-U, 48 kings (1433-1785 AD).” Shiri Gupta hill is 20 miles north of Mrohaumg. Mahamatmuni Image (the Great Image of Lord Buddha) is on that hill. This place is older than Vesali. The place was established by Hindus. Mahamatmuni image was built by the king Sandathuriya (146-198 A. D.).There were Hindu gods around the image of Mahamatmuni. These images of gods indicated that Arakan was a Hindu land until 10th century. Those Hindus might be Bengalees. The image of Mahamatmuni was ruined when Arakan was attacked by Mongolians or TibetoBurmans in the year 957 A.D. Morris Collis also wrote that the image was renovated while Arakan was feudatory to Pagan’s kings of Burma. The ruins of the city of Vesali can still be found at the place five miles north of Morhaung City. The city of Vesali was founded in 788 A.D. by king Mahataing Sandya. This was the beginning of the Chandra dynasty. They were Hindus but professed Buddhism. Vesali was a prosperous sea port of Arakan. Over one thousand foreign ships used to visit the port annually. Most of them were Arab ships. Before the arrival of Islam, the people of Vesali professed Hinduism and Buddhism. Later, they abandoned Hinduism and professed Buddhism and Islam. Inside the palace compound of Vesali there were many stone plates inscribed in Nagris. The Vesali kings also melted coins with cows, Nandis and shred of flower and Nagris letters. The coins of Vesali was melted with Bhraman civilization. Vesali was razed in 957 A.D. with the invasion of Tibeto-Burmans. The Tibeto- Burmans killed Sula Candra, the last king of Vesali dynasty, and Amia Thu of their tribe was throned. Within a few years the Hindu of Bengal was able to throne their Pala Dynasty. But the Hindus of Vesali was unable to restore their dynasty because of the invasion and migration of Tibeto-Burmans were so great that their population overshadowed the Vesali Hindus. Morris Collis wrote that since 957 A.D. Tibeto-Burmans cut Arakan away from India and mixing in sufficient number with the inhabitants of the Vesali, created that Indo-Mongoloid stock now known as Rakhine. The Rakhine Maghs descended from the mixture of Tibeto-Burmans (Mongolians) and Vesali Hindus (Ayrians). Nowadays, many Rakhine Maghs claimed to be more Ayrian than Mongolian. But the date 957A.D. may be said to mark the appearance of Rakhine Maghs and their history.
The last Tibeto-Burman king of Vesali Ngapinngaton in 994 A.D. shifted the capital from Vesali to Sanbawet on the delta region of Lamro river, some 15-miles southeast of Vesali city, for easier communication with Burma. For centuries numerous dynasties ruled the country, each with its own city but always in the same locality. Many kings ruled the country, but no coins were melted by them. These kings had good contact with the Pagan dynasty of Burmese kings. Later they had been feudatory to Pagan kings. Burmese civilization came to Arakan through the Bu-Rwak-Manyo mountain pass. Pegan, the city state of Burman herself had modified their religion from the Mahayanist to the Hinayanist form of Buddhism and modification was transmitted to Arakan during the 11th and 12th centuries. Rakhine Maghs resemble more to Burmans less to Hindus. Their religion became less Mahayanist and more Hinayanist. The Arakanese Buddhists called themselves Rakhine and their country Rakhinepyi. Accoring to Sir A. P. Phayre’s History of Burma, the word is a corruption of the Pali Rakkhasa (Skt. Rakshasa) meaning “ogre” (Burmese bilu) or guardian of the mansion of Indra on Mount Meru. Before 12th century, there was no Burmese literature in Arakan, but Sangada (Sanskrit) literature was found with Nagaris letters. Burmese literature arrived in Arakan during 12th century. In regard to Rakhine Maghs language. Sir Arthur Phayer wrote that, Rakhine Maghs are the descendants of Tobeto-Burman. There is no difference between Rakhine Maghs and Burmans except a little in their languages. The Rakhine Maghs of today are basically Burmese, though with an unmistakable Indian admixture. Although mainly Buddhist, they have been influenced by long centuries of contact with Muslims Bengal. Phonetically Rakhines have 42 syllables; that is eight syllables less than Burmese. Their is language is Burmese with some dialectical difference and an older form of pronuciation, especially noticeable in their retention of the “r” sound, which the Burmese have changed to y’. The Bengali refer to them by the name Magh, a word adopted by 17th century European writers and written “Mugg”. Rakhine Maghs are generally short-temper, vociferous and undiplomatic. They consider their homeland as the father or fatherland. They looked upon the Wednesday as sacred for they belive that their country was founded on that day. In ancient times Rakhine’s national dress was to that of Bengal, more or less. As to marriage the Rakhines favour ‘cross-cousin mirrage’. That is marriage between the children of a woman and those of her brother or vice versa. Hence the Buddhist of Arakan known as Rakhine Maghs are mixed blooded race descended from Aryan of Magadah of Bihar, India, Mongolian, and Tibeto-Burman. Chapter IV COMING OF THE PATHAN MUSLIMS TO ARAKAN In addition to Arab Muslims, many Muslims from India also arrived and settled in every nook and cranny of Arakan. They were Gauri Pathans from Gaur, the capital of the Sultan of Bengal.
Previously, the Indian Muslims had only contact with Arab Muslims and had no relation with Rakhine Magh people of Arakan because they were non-Muslims and they thought that they (the Maghs) were wild hilly people. At that time the Bengal Sultanate was ruled by the Pathan Muslims with their capital at Gaur. When Narameikhia took refuge at the court of Gaur the relation between Arakan and Bengal started. The circumstances which made Arakan turn from the East and look west to the Moslem States were political. When Longgeret dynasty’s last king Thingathu died, Narameikhia, the son of his elder brother Razathu, ascended the throne of Longgeret. Saw Pu Nyo, the sister of Anandathein (the governor of Dallah) was the most beautiful woman of Arakan at that time. Narameikhia had developed weakness for her. Being unable to control his lust for her, he took her as his queen after forced divorce from her husband which made annoyed Annandathein. He took it as an insult to the courtiers and entire people and to himself. So, he sought assistance from Ava king Min Khong-I of central Burma who succeeded the Pagan dynasty. King Min Khong considering the previous infiltration of Arakanese king Hla Ra Giri to Yaw,Saw, Long Shay, the request of Annada Thien and his own lust for expansion of his country, sent his 13 year old son Min Ye Kyaw Swa, as the head of 30,000 soldiers, to Arakan. Min Ye Kyaw Swa conquered Arakan in 1404 A.D. and the deposed king Narameikhia fled to Bengal and took refuge at the court of king Ahmed Shah at Gaur. That kingdom had been independent of the sultanate of Delhi for eighty six years ago.It was one of the many sovereign states of the world-wide Moslem polity. His younger brother Naranu fled to Hantha Wadi and took refuge at the court of Mon (Talaing) king Razadirize. When the victory of Min Ye Kyaw Swa was conveyed to King Min Khong, the king gave his daughter, Shwe Pyi Chan Tha, in marriage with Ahnawratha Saw, the governor of Kalay, and sent him to Arakan and called back his son. But his tyrannic rule was unbearable to the people of Arakan. Naranu requested help from Mon king Razadirize. King Razadirize sent Mon and Muslim army – both land and naval forces to Arakan. They conquered Arakan. Anawratha Saw and Shwe Pyi Chan Tha were taken to Hanthawidi where the former was put down to death and the latter was made queen. Naranu ascended the throne of Longgeret. When bad news was heard by the king Min Khong, he sent again Min Ye Kyaw Swa to Arakan. Min Ye Kyaw Swa conquered Arakan again. Naranu fled to the upper reaches of Kassapa Nadi (Kaladan River). In this way Arakan became the battle field of Burmese and Mon. Lastly, Mon won the battle.Thus Arakan fell under the subjugation of Mon. While Narameikhia was serving at the army of Sultan Ahmed Shah, the Indian king of Delhi (according to Rakhine Razawin, the king of Janpur, Sultan Ebrahim) invaded the Sultanate of Bengal. Narameikhia fought the battle with full of valour and skill. The king was very pleased and called him son and Naramekhia called the king father, which was written by Sayadaw U Nyana in
his Danyawadi Razawintheik (the Modern History of Arakan). Hence, Rakhine Maghs and Muslims became brothers and sisters. Fraternity began between Maghs and Muslims. After the victory of the battle, king Ahmed Shah handed over the throne of Gaur to his son Nazir Shah in the year 1426 A.D (According to Bengal History it was not Nazir Shah but Sultan Jalaluddin Mohammed Shah). Then Narameikhia pleaded help from the king to take back his lost throne of Longgeret. The king agreed to do so when Narameikhia agreed to abide the following conditions;
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
To return the twelve towns of Bengal. Muslim title must be used by the king of Arakan. The court emblem must be inscribed with Kalima Tayuba in Persian. The coins, medallions must be inscribed with Kalima Tayaba in Parsian and to mint them in Bengal. To use the Persian as court language of Arakan. To pay taxes and presents annually.
Since that time onward Rakhine Maghs had to learn the Islamic history and the meaning of the triumph of Islam and how it arrived, that the chief Moslem protagonists were Mongolians. For hundred years, Arakan was a vassal state of the Muslim Bengal and paying tribute to Bengal. As Narameikhia agreed to the six conditions, in 1429, Sultan Nazir Shah sent Gen. Wali Khan as the head of 20,000 Pathan forces with Narameikhia to restore the throne of Arakan to Narameikhia. The Pathan army crossed Arakan through Golangi pass and another army crossed through Wall Khan (later Alt Khan) pass. They conquered Arakan from the control of Mon and Narameikhia ascended the throne. Soon Wali Khan and Narameikhia had a dispute over the No. 5 condition of introduction of Persian as the court language of Arakan. Gen. Wali Khan arrested Narameikhia and locked up at Balouthaung fettering him. Sir Arthur Phayer wrote that Gen. Wali Khan arrested Narameikhia with the collaboration of a Magh Chief who was his enemy (may be Ananda Thein). Gen. Wali Khan ruled the country for one year. He introduced Persian in his court and appointed Qazis. From the upper Kissapa Nadi (Kalandan River) Naranu came down and rescued Narameikhia. He went straight to Sultan Nazir Shah and narrated all the happenings. The king become furious and sent his right and left ministers such as Dampasu, Razamani, Setta Khan with an army larger than that of Gen. Wali Khan, now headed by Gen. Sandi Khan. They throned Narameikhia at Lounggeret and sent back Gen. Wali Khan to the Bengal. Narameikhia thought that the city of Lannggyet was a cursed city from where he was ousted and which city also saw the rise and fall of many kings, Harvey writes: “The turmoil of foreign inroads showed that Launggyet was ill-fated and the omen indicated Mrohaung as a lucky site, so he decided to move there; though the astrologers said that if he moved the capital he would die within a year, he insisted, saying that the move would benefit the people and his own death would matter little. In 1433 he founded Mrohaung and in the next year he died. A populous sea-port,
built on hillocks amid the rice-plain, and intersected by canals which served as streets, Mrohaung remained the capital for the next four centuries.” Narameikhia shifted his capital to a new site known as Mrauk-U or Patthri Quilla in 1433. As the Pathan soldiers of Gen. Sandi Khan was faithful to him, king Narameikhia deployed them to all important and strategic places and all bordering areas to defend the state. These Pathan soldiers were unable to return to their motherland. They served in Arakan with the posts-ranked from ministers to soldiers and built many monuments. Among them the most prominent mosque is the Sandi Khan mosque which was built in the year 1433 at Kawalong, in Mrohaung City. Though the religion of Islam and the culture of Muslim began with the arrival of Arabs in Arakan, but it came to prominence with the arrival of Gauri Pathans. In U Kyi’s “The Essential History of Burma”, he wrote that “Rakhine Maghs became Muslims after embracing Islam in 15th century. For hundred years, from 1430 to 1530 A. D. Arakan was under the suzerainty of Muslim Bengal.” Eleven kings successively ruled Arakan for hundred years 1430 to 1530 A.D… The relation with Bengal remained extremely cordial. The Arakanese paid tribute to Muslim Bengal and learnt Islamic history and politics. According to Lt. Col.Ba Shan’s “Coming of Islam to Burma to 1700 A.D.”, some of the Arakanese Kings with Muslim titles are as follows:
1. Naramekhla (Solaiman Shah) 2. Meng Khari (a) Naranu(Ali Khan) 3. Ba Saw Pru (Kalima Shah) 4. Dawlya (Mathu Shah) 5. ‘Ba Saw Nyo (Mohammed Shah) 6. Ran Aung(Noori Shah) 7. Salimgathu (Sheik Abdullh Shah) 8. Meng Raza(Ilias Snah-I) 9. Kasabadi (Ilias Shah-II) 10.Meng Saw Oo (Jalal Shah) 11. Thatasa (Ali Shah) 12. Min KhaungRaza (El-Shah Azad) 13. Min Bin(a)Min Pa Gri(Zabuk Shah) 14. Min Dikha (Daud Khan) 15. Min Phalaung (Sikender Shah) 16. Min Razagri (Salim Shah) 17. Min Khamaung (Hussain Shah) 18. ThiriThudama(SalimShah-II)
1430 1434 A.D. 1434-1459 1459-1482 1482-1492 1492-1493 1493-1494 1494-1501 1501-1513 1513-1515 15151515-1521 1521-1531 1531-1553 1553-1555 1571-1591 1593-1612 1612-1622 1622-1637
In 1531 Minbin (Zabuk Shah) ascended the throne. With him the Rakhine Maghs graduated in their Islamic studies and the Arakanese Empire was founded. In the year 1556 Bengal was invaded and conquered by the General of Emperor Akbar and many Pathans and Mughals of Bengal took refuge in Arakan. T.N. Sarkar wrote that the Pathan and
Mughal of Arakan had supported Shah Shuja. The twelve towns of Bengal were ruled by the Arakanese kings till king Narameikhla. These twelve towns of Bengal were returned by Narameikhla to the Sultan of Bengal and were under the control of Sultanate of Bengal for hundred years. Chittagong was under the control of Arakan for more than two hundred years, that is, from 1459 A.D to 1666 A.D. In those days the people of Arakan and Bengal had very cordial relations. From the days of the restoration of king Mmsawmun (1430 A.D.), there was an influx of Muslim officials, including ministers and courtiers, physicians (hakims or tabibs), qazis, soldiers both of the cavalry and infantry, merchants, traders, labourers and workers who were soon absorbed in the general population. In addition there was a transient population of sailors of becalmed Arab, Persian and Indian Muslims vessels who spent considerable periods of the year in the seaports of Aakan waiting for favourable winds. In 17th century the Maghs and Portugese pirates brought Bengalee prisoners, both Muslim and Hindus, and sold at the ports of lndia and Arakan. The Arakan pirates both Magh and Portugese (Feringhi) used constantly to come by water route and plunder Bengal. According to D.G.E. Hall,every year a devasting raids, often as far as Dacca and Murshidabad, were a carried out and vast numbers of captives carried of to Maruk-U, where the king, after selecting all the artisans for his own service, sold the rest to foreign traders at a few Ruppes a head. According to Puthi literature, “the inscription of the Muslim Kalima on Arakanese coins and the adoption of many Muslim customs and terms were other significant tributes to the influence of Islam. Mosques including the famous Sandikhan mosque began to dot the country-side and Islamic customs, manners and practices came to be established since this time. For about two hundred years the Muslim domination seemed to have been completed.” In Arakan most of the ministers, and officers of land and naval forces were Muslims since Narameikhla’s rule in Arakan. The famous poet of Arakan Shah Alawal wrote that, Margan Thakur, Sulaiman, Sayed Musa, Nobaraj Mujalis were Muslim Prime Ministers of Arakan and Lashkar Wazir Ashraf Khan was War Minister of King Thiri Thudhamma-raza (1612-22 A.D.) according to M.K. Rahman’s Tarik-i-Islam Arakan and Burma. In 1666, the Subader of Bengal, Shahista Khan sent his son Gen. Omid Khan and conquered Chittagong and Ramu. Then many Maghs migrated to Mrohaung and many Muslims settled at the northern side of Arakan. Some say the population of north Arakan was thin due to migration of Maghs to south. Chapter V COMING OF THE MOGHUL MUSLIMS TO ARAKAN
In the middle of the 17th century, there was a political upheaval in Moghul Empire in India. The Moghul Emperor Shah Jahan (1627-1658 A.D.) had four sons and two daughters. The four sons are Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad. Shah Shuja was the second son of Moghul Emperor Shah Jahan of India and (the famous queen of love) queen Mantaz Mahal. In 1639 A.D. Shah Shuja became the governor of Bengal. He was a clever and brave soldier. But he indulged to enjoyment than administration. But his younger brother Aurangzeb, the governor of Dakina (southern) state was very industrious, intelligent and a good administrator. In 1657 A. D., the Emperor Shah Jahan fell ill seriously. Rivalry began among his sons for the succession of throne. Finally, Aurangzeb controlled the throne after dethroning his father. His youngest brother Murad was put into jail and Aurangzeb had declared himself to be the Emperor of Hindustan. Shah Shuja, the Governor of Bengal denounced Aurangzeb’s claim and advanced with his forces to dethrone Aurangzeb. On the way, Mir Jumla, the general of Aurangzeb fought with Shah Shuja and he was defeated at Kajawa, at the north of Allahabad on 5 January 1658 A.D… Then Aurangzeb put his elder brother Dara Shikandar to jail, to whom he promised to reappoint him as the governor of Punjab and was crowned on 21st July as Emperor of India. In 1660 A.D. Mir Jumla conquered Bengal and defeated Shah Shuja at Dhaka. According to ‘Alamgirnamah‘, Shah Shuja had three sons Zain-al-din, Buland Akter, Zain-al-Abedin and three daughters Gulrukh Banu, Raushan Ara Begum or Mah Khanan and Amena Banu. His wife is Piaree or Piara Banu. On Sunday, 6th May 1660, Shah Shuja fled with his treasures and family with an army of 3000 archers to Mrauk-U (Mrohaung).They arrived at Chittagong on 3rd June 1660 A.D. From thence they had arrived at the capital Mrauk-U on 26th August 1660 A.D. On the way he stayed at Maungdaw. The village, where he stayed a few days at Maungdaw, is still known as Shujapara. The intention of Shah Shuja was to go to Holy Makkah, where he wanted to pass his rest of life. Sanda Thudama (1651-1684 A.D.), the king of Arakan, granted him asylum and give a house at the foot of Babu hill (Mintha Taung) on the right bank of Wathee creek (near the Palace) with full facilities. The king also promised to provide a ship for travelling to Holy Makkah. But he wanted to break the promise for his lust for his daughter and teasures. The king had never seen such huge treasure brought by Shah Shuja. Time passed in many months. But the king kept silent about his promised-ship. He sent messengers for the ship. Sanda Thudama refused it and complained about Shuja’s failure to come and ask him about the ship. Shah Shuja was afraid of being seized if he visited the king. He sent his son. Sultan Banque with various rich brocades and rare pieces of gold smith’s work, set with precious stones of great values. But the king wanted to seize all his treasure and find out a lame excuse. So, Sanda Thudama asked the hand of Shuja’s daughter Ameena, though he knew very well that Sultan Shuja would never consent, he, being a pagan and she a Muslim princess of the imperial Moghul family members which were strong believers in the tenets of the Muslim faith. As Shah Shuja
refused the suit, the king ordered him to leave the country within three days. Aurangazeb, a brother from the same mother womb became his deadly enemy and he had no ship to proceed for Makkah. To die was cast. To live, Shah Shuja had to dare. According to Arakanese Chronicles of that period tells that Shah Shuja was only too happy to give his daughter to the king of Arakan in gratitude for the asylum granted, however, when he saw that had lost the Moghul throne, he decided to conquer Arakan and make himself king with the help of his own soldiers, the Muslim soldiers under king’s army and the local Muslim population, but the plot was uncovered; he fled to the hill, was captured and executed. The historian Sir Arthur Phayre thinks that the Arakanese Chronicles conceal their king’s ugly behavior, and emphasise the prince’s abortive experiment to capture the palace by neglecting to mention the preceding provocation of not providing the promise ships, the king’s request to have one of Shah Shuja daughter’s in marriage and his wish to molest the prince’s riches. Phayre quotes no source of his opinion, which is apparently only his personal point of view, but a decidedly acceptable one. In the support of Sir A. P. Phayre’s opinion Niccolao Manucci, a Venetian gunner, in service with Prince Dara was in India between the years 1656-1712 A.D. This work ‘Storia do mogor or Mogul India’ (1653-1708 A.D.) corroborates, and especially in perfuse detail the slaughter of the Mughal Prince Shah Shuja and his family. He says: He confided this design to some of his people by whom it was approved. But they were not able to carry out the project with the called-for secrecy, and though the delay they made there was time for the King of Arakan to hear of the plot. He planned the assassination of Shah Shuja and all his adherents, and to this intent called to him his four principal captains, each of whom had three thousand armed men …….. To these he issued orders that one morning of daybreak they should all with one accord shout “Long live the King of Arakan! Death to Shah Shuja and all traitors!” Under cover of these, they were to kill everyone. The captains carried out the order of their king, killing everybody they encountered. Upon this news reaching the unfortunate prince Shah Shuja, he tried to save his life by getting on his elephant, hoping that he might thereby impose some respect for his person. But it was grievous to see the fury with which the Maghs came on, throwing everything into disorder, with blows and shouts and cries, some saying “Death to the Prince Shah Shuja!” others,”Death to his son. Prince Bang!” “Slay those traitorous Moguls who fled here from Bengal!” Prince Bang was taken prisoner, while Shah Shuja with a few men fled to the jungle. He made liberal use of the bags of jewels and pearls, which he scattered among these savages, attempting by the use of these valuables to mitigate the rage of the soldiers and gain a free passage for his flight. But the Maghs paid no heed to his proffered wealth; they pursued the poor prince like famishing wolves, cutting his body into pieces, stripping it bare, and plundering all his valuables……….. So, on 7th February 1661 A.D. Shah Shuja fled to the forest with some of his followers. The Magh chased them like faminishing wild wolves. Ultimately the Magh caught Sultan Shah Shuja and
chopped him into pieces and plundering all his valuables. The family of Shah Shuja was arrested by the Magh Raja. According to D.G.E Hall, on 25th July 1663 A.D., the Royal Palace had been fired by 10 or 12 desperate “Mogolders” and burnt to the ground. In the general confusion Manaw-thiri, the Governor of Mrauk-U, was burnt to death and the king and his family bearly escaped with their lives. Shah Shuja’s three sons were suspected of having been the cause of it and the king gave orders for the total extermination of Shuja’s family. Sultan Banque and his brother were decapitated with blunt axes, and the ill fated families were closely confined in their apartments. Piara Banu, Shah Shuja’s wife, when approached by king Sanda Thudhamma in his seraglio, is supposed to have killed with a dagger while her two elder daughters took poison and died. The youngest, Amena Banu, was forcibly taken as wife by the king but languished in captivity and left to die of hunger. It has been confirmed by most accounts that Amena Banu, at the time other assassination was pregnant; her killing was probably the crowning inequity of king Sanda thudhamama among all his other misdeeds. Many Moors and Bengali Muslims had been plundered and massacred by the order of the king. Shah Alaol, the great poet and writer who flourished in Arakan Court, also confirmed in his writings Saiful Muluk Baduzzaman and Sikandar Nama referring to the wholesale killings and imprisonments of the Muslims of Mrauk-U. In the reign of terror which followed the abortive rising, Aloal himself, an innocent citizen of Mrauk-U, was incarcerated in prison for a period of 50-days on the basis of the reports of tell-tales and was only released by strong intercession on his behalf. The fate of Shah Shuja was heard by the Emperor Aurangazeb. Sanda Thudama knew that the Mughal would retaliate it. In advance the Magh Raja ordered the Portugese at Dainga and Sandip to advance to Dhaka. On the way they destroyed 40 ships of the Subeder (governor) of Bengal. So, Emperor Aurangazeb ordered to break the nest of the pirates of Magh and Portugese. Shayista Khan, the governor of Bengal captured Sandip in 1665 with the cooperation of Dutch. Sanda Thudama had doubt about the loyalty of the Portugese. The Portugese in turn doubt about their safety. So, they fled to the side of Shayista Khan with 42 war ships. In February 1666, Shayista Khan’s son General Buzuruk Omed Khan captured Chittagong with the help of 288-war ships. After the captured of Chittagong the Mughals conquered Ramu within 36 hours. Two thousand Maghs were sold as slaves. The fleeing Magh soldiers were chased by the local Muslims. Some historians view that Gen. Omed Khan captured whole of Arakan for a very short period. They did not keep control of Arakan because the aim of the Mughul Emperor was only to control Bengal and to break the nest of the pirates. They could easily control Arakan because the Portugese and the Dutch were on their side.
If Shah Shuja planned to seize the throne of Arakan was true and the secrecy of the Shah Shuja was not known to Magh Raja, Shah Shuja could easily captured the throne of Arakan and the course of Arakanese history might have been changed. After the loss of Chittagong and Ramu, out of fear, the Rakhine Maghs of North Arakan fled to the South. Many Muslims migrated to North Arakan. G. E. Harvey wrote in his book the History of Burma that at that time though there were no robbery but the atmosphere of robbery existed. Alter the massacre of Shah Shuja, his remaining followers in 1661 A.D. were retained as Archers of the Guard, praetorians who drew Rs. 4 a month, equivalent to many times that amount of modern currency, at the request of Muslim Prime Minister Margan. Some of the followers of Shah Shuja escaped the persecution of Maghs and crossed to Burma. The king of Ava settled them in Ramethin, Shwebo, Maydu, Meiktila, Their descendants can be found today at these places. Detail was written by U-Mya (I) in his Short History of Burmese Muslims. Chapter VI THE EMERGENCE OF ETHNIC ROHINGYAS The term Rohingya is derived from the word Rohai or Roshangee, a terminology pervered to Rohingya. Rohai and Roshangee are terms denoting the Muslim people inhabiting in the old Arakan (Rohan/Roshang/ Roang). It is probably the corruption of Arabic term Raham (blessing) or Raham Borri meaning the land of God’s blessings. The word Rahma to Rahmi-Rahmia-Rahingya to Rohingya, which denotes honest, dutiful, pitiful or kind hearted to others. But there is another historical defination of Rohingya. That is Rohingya which derived from the Magh language “Rwa-haung-gya-kyia”. The Magh used to call the Pathan army of General Wali Khan and General Sandi Khan, who came to restore the throne to Narameikhia, as “Rwa-haunggya-kyia”- which was changed time to time – as Rwahingyia – Rohingya-which denotes as brave as tiger. As the Pathans army defeated the Mon-Talaing army, the Rakhine Maghs used to call the Pathan as brave as tiger. They mixed with the Arab descendants for centuries and become Rohingyas. “Arakan, infect, a continuation of the Chittagong plain was neither purely a Burmese nor an Indian territory till the 18th century of the Christian era. Chiefly for its location, it was not only remained independent for the most part of history, but endeavoured to expand its territory in the surrounding tracts whenever opportunity came and Chittagong was the first to be the victim of the territorial ambition of the Arakanese monarchs.
…… Shut off from Burma by a hill range, it is located far away from the Indian capitals. The relation between Chittagong and Arakan is influenced by geographical, ethnological, cultural and historical considerations, from about 1580 A.D. nearly a century, Chittagong was under almost uninterrupted Arakanese rule which is undoubtedly an important period marked by momentous events. “There were Moors, Moghuls and Pathans also in Arakan…. Thus, the Muslim population of Arakan consisted roughly of four categories, namely, the Bangalee, other Indian, Afro-Asian and native. Among these four categories of Muslims the Bengali Muslims formed the largest part of the total Muslim population of Arakan.” The Arabs and Pathans army are founded the original nucleus of the Rohingyas in Arakan, who arrived from Arab and Bengal Sultanate during the time of Arakanese kings. The Arabs were the first to lay the foundation of Muslim society in Arakan in the later part of the 7th century A.D. and the waves of immigration from Bengal were very significant, for with these immigrants came the Muslim nobels, statemen, traders, teachers, poets, and soldiers. There had been large-scale conversion of the Hindus, Buddhists and animists to Islam who also constitute part and parcel of the Rohingya. In 15th century the number of converts to Islam soared, specially as the Muslims has established standard of credibility and stature in the community, initially through inter-mirrages. These various migrations led to the admixture of blood and culture to form one common racial and linguistic classification to be known as Rohingya a term derived from “Rohang”, the ancient name of Arakan. The Rohingya people developed a culture which was relatively advanced for that period. Schools, Madarasas were established, epics, ballads and riddles were advanced, music and dances were performed. This culture spread out all over Arakan. The Rohingya economy was also relatively developed. They developed agriculture, trade and commerce and extended their trade relation with neighbouring countries. Today the majority of the Rohingya people rely on agriculture as their base of subsistence; even Rohingya fishermen engage in agriculture during the non-fishing period. Among the Muslim population of Chittagong two distinct ethnic characters are found; one is known as Chatgaiya and the other Rohai. Although professing the same religion they have different cultural habits. In fact the Rohais of Chittagong today are those Muslim people who fled Arakan (Rohang) as a result of Bunnan atrocities after the country was occupied in 1784 A.D. As many as 50% of the total population of Chittagong district are Rohais who trace their ancestoral origin to Arakan. The Rohingyas trace their origin to Arabs, Moors, Turks, Persians, Moghuls, Patthans and Bangalees.
Since Rohingyas are mixture many kinds of people, their check-bone is not so prominent and eyes are not so narrow like Rakhine Maghs and Burman. Generally they are broad shouldered, thin-bearded, a bit taller in stature than the Rakhine Maghs and Burmans but darker in complexion. They are some bronze coloured and not yellowish. THE ROHINGYAS ARE A NATION “From 1430 to 1531, for more than one hundred years, Arakan was ruled by the Muslims.” “Their Muslim Kingdom was independent in the 14th and 15th centuries. It was later absorbed by Burma” in 1784 A.D. The people of Arakan, the Rohingyas and Rakhines, had already organized their own statehood patterned after the Sultanate system of government current in those days. Thus in the context of Arakan the Rohingyas are not a minority but part of an integral whole. Today Rohingya nation exists because it is rooted in the direct personal feelings and the material interests of the large section of the Rohingya people whether in the homeland or in the places of refuge: Aside from the compulsion of geography the Rohingya national identity is unique into Itself in terms of language and culture. The Rohingyas speak a common language and have common cultural trials. Almost all the Rohingyas are Muslims though there are a few Rohingya language speaking Hindus and Baruas. The Rohingyas are proud of their distinctive culture and language. They can not be classified cultural sub-group. ROHINGYA HOMELAND The Rohingyas inhabit a contiguous area and therefore have a separate territory which is the most crucial element in a national identity. The Rohingya populations in North Arakan are united by ancient heritage, a rich culture and distinct language. They have lived for many centuries within well defined geographical boundaries which demarcate their “Traditional Homeland”. The group identity of the Rohingya people has grown over the past several centuries, hand in hand with the growth of their homeland in North Arakan, where they worked together, spoke to each other, founded their families, educated their children and also sought refuge, from time to time, from physical attacks elsewhere in Arakan and Burma. The Rohingyas were once in absolute majority in the whole of Arakan. But they have been exterminated in a systematic and planned way and their homeland has now shrunk progressively in insignificance or to semi-preservations — a process still evidenced. Planned increase in the Buddhist population systematically exterpate the Rohingya people and destroy the crucial geographical link between areas in the whole of Arakan. It threatens the Rohingya’s claim to a contiguous homeland of the whole of North Arakan. The face of Rohingya homeland has been changed as the Rohingyas are helpless to check their demographic erosion. Despite systematic extermination of Rohingya population by means of genocidal actions and continued persecution, the Rohingyas still predominate in the area between the river Naf which demarcates the border between Burma and Bangladesh and river Kaladan, the longest river in Arakan. But the Rohingyas still claim that all those areas which have been inhabited by Muslims or atleast within
their sphere of influnce before the pogram of 1942 are also included in their Traditional Homeland. Arakan has always been a country with two nations within one geographic entity. Two different peoples, from the very ancient period, have been inhabiting Arakan. During the course of their settlements Arakan is divided into two parts : Muslim North and Buddhist South. That is the Rohingya homeland of North Arakan and Rakhine homeland of South Arakan. Though Rohingyas live everywhere in Arakan and they are once majority in Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Rathidaung, Akyab, Kyauktaw, Mrohaung and Minbya. Now, they are majority only in former Mayu Dist. and Akyab Island. RELIGION AND SOCIETY All Rohingyas profess Islam. They are strict followers of Islamic traditions. In every village there is atleast one mosque and one grave-yard. Rohingya Muslims celebrate religious festivals with great joy and enthussasm. Great rejoicings marked the two Eids, Eidul-Fitr, and Eidul-Azha (Qurbani Eid). Eids prayers were generally offered at Eidgahs or Mosques (where there is no Eidgah) and the days were spent in feeding, feasting and visiting the houses of the neighbours and relations. They also visit graveyard for ziyarat who left them earlier. Zakat is paid by all solvent Rohingya people ordinarily during the month of Ramadan. Qurbani is offered by all according to their financial means. Shab-i-Maraj, Shab-i-Barat and Shab-i-Qadar were observed with prayer, devotion, alms-giving and feeding of the poor. Romadan is greeted by all Rohingyas with much religious fervour. The birth day of Hazart Mohammed (s.m.) was celebrated every year on 12th of Rabiul-Awal as known UmanNabi. Though the Rohingyas lived together with Rakhine Maghs, they lived with their own culture.They never eat together. Inter-marriage also not so common. They live in separate villages. Every compact village or a part of it formed a social unit with the mosque as its centre and a uniting force for the convenience and regulation of social life of the inhabitants of the area. The eldest, pious, and influential man in the society was recogonised as the head of village society (Samaj) who decide all disputes among them with the help of village elders. DWELLING-HOUSES In Arakan, Rohingya people live in somewhat densely packed villages and the majority of their houses are built of wooden pole, bamboo, thatched with palm-leaves (Dani) and stand on stilts as a protection against the floods that rise and surge under the monsoon rains.
At townships headquarters and at most villages of any size or importance a few brick houses are to be found in Arakan. In the large villages have a fair number of wooden houses with thatch (dani) or corrugated iron roofs. OCCUPATION AND TRADE The soil of Arakan is very fertile and the climate is ideal for rice cultivation. Arakan is dependent entirely on agriculture; all other occupations are subsidiary to, or exist for the maintenance of, the agricultural population. Of total Rohingya population 80% are occupied in agriculture or pasturing. The next order of numbers are those engaged in trade in food-stuffs. The third in respect of numbers are shop-keepers and followed by persons engaged in transport by water and by road, wood workers, fisherman, manufacturers of tobacco and salts. MARRIAGE Endogamy is a factor resulting in the practice of segmentation. In other words, endogamy reinforces ties of common descent. The Rohingyas practise endogamy. In early days, a Rohingya would not be eligible for marriage until three voyages of trade by water or three trips of trade on land. Otherwise, he would be looked down by the society and would call him impotent with contempt. The Rohingya would never marry with other non-Muslim without conversion to Islam. If one many without conversion to Islam, the Rohingya society would boycott them until and unless he or she embraees Islam. So, the Rohingya parents control their children and arrange marriage between the parents. If they eloped, after having love affairs, the Rohingya society used to condemn them. Betrothal is arranged by the Rohingya parents. The bride and the groom are not allowed to meet before marriage. Family lines are thoroughly checked before the engagement. Engagement breaks if there arise dissension amoung the parents or guardians. Mohar is fixed by the parents or guardians of the bride and the groom and it is most essential according Islamic law. It must be given by the groom for the bride. Both the bride and groom must declare their willingness by pronouncing the words “Khawbul Ahsi” (we do agree) in front of at lest two witness and the molvi Shaheeb (Alim) who perform the mirrage. Divorce rate among the Rohingyas is less then other races of Burma. The wedding ceremonies are held in receptions as far as possible. The receiption diner is usually held by the family of the bride-groom. In special case called “Salami”, the reciption dinner is hold at bride home. During the wedding month the relatives of the newly wedded couple use to invite them and are served with at least one meal in consecutive days by each and every household of their relatives which shows their affections for the couple. In almost all Rohingya’s marriage ceremonies ‘Howlla’ (Group singing) songs sing and folk-dancing of girls and women are common. FOODS
Rice is the staple food grain of Arakan. The diet of the Rohingya is simple rice, fish, vegetables and chillis; meat was taken on occasions. The majority Rohingyas eat dry fishes with fresh vegetables or potatoes or also without any of them. On all festive occasion cows, water-buffolos and goats were slaughtered for sales and distribution. Rakhine Maghs like pork very much. Rohingyas never touch or eat pork. Pork is forbidden by Islam. They eat mutton, beef, chicken after making Halal according to Islamic teaching. Rohingyas honoured their special guests slaughtering a goat or more with their means and the poor with a chiken. DRESS The Rakhine Maghs males wear Gaung-Boung and Rohingyas males wear caps. The Rakhine Maghs wear Burmese jackets and Rohingyas wear coats. In olden days Rohingya used to wear Turbans of white clothes of 10 yards long and 1/2 yard breath. But British and Indian culture changed the dress of the Rohingya. The male Rohingya wears a shirt with long sleeves called Bazu covering the upper part of the body while the lower part is covered a sheet of cloth stitched from side to side called longgi. Vest or gonji is wear as inner garment by the Rohingya male. The adult female Rohingya wears long sleeved garment known as Suli to cover the upper part of the body while the lower part is covered with a Tami. Inner garment called Boduli long sleeve barazier wear every gril and woman of Rohingya. They wear a petticoat of cloth called Assar. This is without tie or fastening, but is broutht round the waist, with the edges well twisted in and kept on by the graceful curve of the hips. Young woman fastened a silk Belt called Rayshamer-Dowali and old women fastened a pice of red cloth 2.5 yards long and six inches wide stitched from side to side called Jali to hold their Tami on their waists. She also wears a scarf known-as Romal which cover the head and shoulders. Whenever she is out-door she wears a Burkha, traditional veil covering the whole body. RITES AND RITUALS Some Rohingya males keep hair fallen on shoulders. They are mostly Molvis. The Rohingyas, on their brith, they keep the Islamic names in Arabic. Some prefer Burmese names or Rakhine Magh names at schools mostly where the teachers are Rakhine Maghs as they can not pronounce Muslim name correctly. Some keep both names such as, Saleh Tun Sein, Ahmed Maung Maung and so on. It is also not good. Muslim should take pride as the kings of Arakan used Muslim titles. On the death of a Rohingya Muslim all the members of the society arranged his / her funeral as a social duty and hurried him/her in the graveyard with a prayer (janaza) according to Islamic Law.
Rohingyas are good natured people. They are honest. They are not oppressors. They can not tolerate the oppressors. They defend their people even not caring their lives. They are brave and intelligent people. During the Second World War, the Rohingya fought for the Independence of Burma with courage. Though the Japanese easily conquered the Southern part of Arakan within a few days, the Japanese were unable to control the North-Arakan due to the defence strategy. Even the Japanese had to retreat failing to advance-through the defence operation of Rohingyas. The courage and bravery of Rohingyas should be recorded in Myanmar Razawin. As Rohingyas are always neglected people, their bravery was never recorded. Rohingyas respect laws and are peace loving people. SPORTS AND GAMES Rohingyas have may indigenous sports and games which are usually held during summer and winter. Some also in rainny season. They are Boli-Khela (wrestling), Ghari-Khela (Boat racing), Mohal Khela, Gila-Khela Du Du Khela, Qunda Khela (weight lilting of round stone), Dan Khela, Ulu Khela, Ciyar Khela, Luk-palani Khela, Phoni Khela, Mal-pat Khela, Bak-goru Khela, Bosgyaburi Khela, Morish Khela, Bat Khela, Kalatur Khela, Saws-sa-rani Khela, Dope-marani Khela, diving and swimming, Paddy transplanting competition. SONGS AND MUSICS The Rohingyas are fond of music (both vocal and instrumental) and dance. Rohingyas have their own folk songs, dances and musics. Howla songs sing by women in almost all Rohingya’s marriage ceremonies and also women dance their flok dences in the same ceremonies. Young women mostly used mouth orgen (Baza) while dancing.Bitayali Geet, Jari Geet and Gazir Geet are very music is very sweet and meladious. Those who had came across the Rohingya National Programme from the Burma Broadcasting Service (BBS), they may recall the art of the Rohingya music. LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE There is separate Rohingya language, literature and civilization. It developed through Islamic civilization. Rohingya language is a mixture of Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Bangali and Rakhine Maghs, because they are the people of border and as same as the people of other border of Burma. In the year 1429 A.D. General Wall Khan introduced Persian as state language of Arakan and also introduced Qazi courts in Arakan. Rohingya language is not recent make up. Muslim writers and poets used to write in this language since the early days in Arabic and Persian alphabets. One of the book is still in the possession of the author (Tahir Ba Tha). In addition to this, the coins of Arakan were melted in Arabic and Persian and also there are numerous Kyauksa (stone inscriptions) carved in Arabic.
The Rohingya literature is considerly rich in ballads, love songs, Floktales, Baramasa, legends,mystic songs, proverbs, bewsans, riddles, lullabies (Auli) and so on. There are many Rohingya poets and writers who flourished in the court of Arakan kings. The Arakanese kings had come under the influence of Bengal Sultans. Most of the their courtiers were Bengali speaking people from Bengal and neighbouring Chittagong region and they encouraged the cultivation of Bengali language. The poets and writers who wrote in Bengali and a good number of their poems and works have been discovered. Some of the Rohingya poets and writers who flourished in Araka court are: Abdu Minyo or Ahmedu Minyo, Shah Barid Khan, Daulat Kazi, Mardan and. Shah Alawal. Quraishi Magan, Abdul Karim Khandkar, poet Abdul Karim are also well known writers and poets of Arakan. The British government also used Persian as the official language ofArakan till 1836 A.D.In addition to Rohingyas many Rakhine Maghs also learned Persians. For example- Seikky Thado Pe and U Aung Gyi. Later on Persian was replaced by English and Urdu. Thus written languages of Rohingya, Persian and Bengali almost disappeared from Arakan during the later part of British rule. The British subtitued English, Urdu and Burmese in place of Rohingya, Persian and Bengali. The Rohingya used Urdu till 1945 British re-entry. Urdu language is rich in poetry and literature. The kinds of birds can be differentiated with their feathers. So it is time for Rohingyas to establish their ancestral dress, literature and culture. Rohingyas are rich with fine-arts, music and architecture. Rohingya architecture resemble the Arab Saracenic style which is witnessed by the mosques of Arakan. Sandi Khan mosque was built with hard rocks and easier design which stood as the oldest Rohingya’s archeological monument. So, it must be preserved by the Rohingyas.Rohingyas should take pride for those Muslims who had built this mosque. ROHINGYAS AND THE UNION CITIZENSHIP ACT OF 1948 In the precedng chapters, we have given the Rohingya’s millenia old establishment in Arakan, with a history of more than 3 centuries of Muslim influence and rule. No Citizenship Law by any standard, can legally term Rohingya as non-nationals; however, it is the false interpretation of the Law by politically motivated elements that the Rohingyas are termed as non-nationals or inferior citizens. In March 1947 Mr. Sultan Ahmed and Mr. Abdul Gaffar returned on the votes of Rohingya Muslims as members of the Constituent Assembly and these members are still continuing in office, representing the Akyab District North Constituency, and took the oath of allegiance to the
Union of Burma on the 4th January 1948 as members of the new Parliament of the Union of Burma. In Chapter II, Section 10 and 11 of the 1947 Constitution of Union of Burma stated that: • • 10- There shall be but one citizenship throughout the Union; that is say, there shall be no citizenship of the unit as distrinct from the citizenship of the Union. 11-(i) Every person, both of whose parents be- long or belonged to any of the indigenous races of Burma; (ii) Every person born in any of the territories includd within the Union, atleast one of whose grand-parents belonged to any of the indigenous races of Burma; (iii) Every person both in any of the territories included with the Union of parents both of whom are, if they had been alive at the commencement of this constitution would have been, citizens of the Union; (iv) Every person who was born in any of the territories which at the time of his birth was included within His Britannic Majesty’s dominions and who has resided in any of the territories included within the Union for a period of not less than 8 years in the ten years immediately preceding the 1st January 1942 and who intends to reside permanently therein and who signifies his election of Citizenship of the Union in a manner and within the time pescribed by law, shall be Citizen of the Union.” ‘Indigenous race’ is a term applied to a people distnct culture and civilisation who had been residing within the territory of Union before 1823, the year of British occupation of Arakan. When Section 11 of the Constitution of the Union of Burma was being farmed a doubt as to whether the Rohingya Muslims of North Arakan fell under the Section 11, Sub-Clauses (i), (ii) and (iii), arose and in effect an objection was put in to have the doubt cleared in respect of the term “Indigenous” as used in the Constitution, but it was withdrawn on the understanding and assurance of the President of the Constituent Assembly, at present His Excellency the President of the Union of Burma, who, when approached for clarification with this question, said “Muslims of Arakan certainly belong to one of the indigenous races of Burma which you represent. In fact, there is no pure indigenous race in Burma, and that if you do not belong to indigenous races of Burma, we also can not be taken as indigenous races of Burma.” Being satisfied with his kind explanation, the objection put in was withdrawn by the Rohingyas’ M.Ps. In 1948, however, a new Citizenship act (The Union Citizenship Act of 1948) was promulgated which restricted Section 11 (iv) of Constitution to any person “from ancestors who for two generation at least all made any of the terriories included within the Union of Burma their permanent home and whose parents and himself were born in any such territories.” As a measure to prevent the continued immigration of the Indians into Burma, all residents in Burma were required to apply for registration within one year of the law and were
givn indenty cards. Many Rohingyas registered and were given cards which enabled them to vote during the democratic period between 1948 to 1962. According to Mr.M.A. Gaffar, Member of Parliment (M.P.) from Akyab West Constituency and Parliamentary Secretary from 1947 to 1962, Press Conference held on 21st. April 1960 in Rangoon are: “Though Rohingyas resemble a little with the people of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), their literature, names and tittles, dresses, languages, customs and cultures are as difference as the sky and the earth. Therefore to regard Rohingyas as Chittagonians is a grevious hurt to Rohingyas and a matter of tragedy and a great blow to Rohingya and far from actual history.” “Although Rohingya’s culture, tradition, history and civilization are not inferior to that of other indigenous races of Burma, Rohingyas are always victims of persecutions, specially, the immigration used to arrest them. In June 1959, 76 Rohingyas were rounded and arrested in Akyab and Mayu districts by the immigration and were sent to Rangoon by steamer for ultimate dispatch to Gawdu-thoung in Pyapon District.” “On November 4, 1959, the Supreme Court of Burma had passed orders directing the release of Hasan Ali and Mahar Alt, who were arrested about the same time and on the same ground. It was pointed out them that the two cases would have served as test cases to the immigration. This was not done and the court had to order to release of 76 detainees who had subsequently applied for writ of habeas corpus. Section 4(2) of the Union Citizenship Act. also pointed out that those persons whose ancestors had made Burma for two generation as their home and who and whose parents were born in Burma were also citizens of the Union. It had been observed by the court that in Union of Burma there were races who could not speak the Burmese language and who nevertheless were citizens of the Union of Burma.” “According to Section 3 (1) of the Act, the people who lived in group in a part of Burma since 1823 (Bur-mese Era 1185) are also indigenous people of Burma in addition to Karen, Kaya, Chin, Myanmar, Mon, Rakhine (Magh) and Shan.” “Due to the 1942 Massacre of Muslims of Arakan, the Rohingyas of Kyauktaw, Mrohaung, Minbya, Pauktaw, Phoonagyon and Maybon had fled to Mayu Dist. and the population of Mayu Dist. increased, which is better known to the Magh people, but the Maghs intentionally alleged them as the illegal immigrants from Pakistan (now Bangladesh). The precious unity of the two sister people of Arakan was ruined due to the fault of Maghs. Rohingyas tried several times for the unity of the people of Arakan, as it is time for the development of Arakan. But the Maghs have not changed their hostile attitude towards, Rohingyas.” “Some leaders from Arakan have been engaged in malicious propaganda against the Rohingya people. Some after the Second World War, when the British reoccupied Burma, they began to conspire against the Rohingyas with the slogan that the Rohingyas are Pakinstani minded and consented to join Arakan with Pakistan. This slogan is utterly false and is but a device to tarish
the image of the Rohingyas with a view to exterminating them. These communal and narrow minded Maghs leaders engineered a communal riot in 1942 resulting in the total destruction of the age old Rohingya settlements from 6 of the 9 townships of Akyab District. The Rohingya population of Myebon in Kyauckpyu District was completely annihilated. Many Rohingyas had taken shelter in Maungdaw and Buthidaung townships. A number of them had taken refuge in the then East Bengal.” “These uprooted Rohingyas, execpting those from the townships of Maungdaw and Buthidaung, have not been repatriated and rehabilitated yet, in their original places. There is no security for their lives. More than half of their landed properties were taken away by the Rakhine Maghs who are not ready to return the prop-erties to the original Rohingya owners. It had become an attraction for the Rakhines of other areas to leave for those 7 townships to grasp the chance of the seizing Rohingyas’ lands. Accordingly, the Rakhines from Maungdaw and Buthidaung had sold out their lands to the Rohingyas at high prices and scrambled to get possession of the Rohingyas lands.” “Now let us ask those Rakhine Magh leaders who are shouting that the Pakistanis are infiltrating into the country. Where are those Rohingyas from 7 townships of 244 Villages have gone? Were all these people killed in 1942 riot? The answer is certainly not. How long the Rakhines will illegally hold the lands of the Rohingyas? How long will they show this drama? The alledged illegal immigration of Pakistanis is utter false. It is nothing but a conspiracy to perpetuate their illegal possession of Rohingyas’ lands and to oppose their repatriation and rehabilitation in their homeland.” “In 1949-50 more than 30,000 Rohingyas, that included women and children, were inhumanly driven across the border to East Pakistan. Conspiratory plans after plans have been hatched out to finish of the Roningyas with the slogan of illegal immigration. This was carried out with an ulterior motive to disturb Rohingyas and to oppose their rehablitation.” “The Government is indifferent to the plights of the Rohingvas. They do not get any legal redress. Even the Government officials publicly threaten : “Why don’t you Kalas (aliens) understand the policy of the Government? Why don’t you leave the country despite continued persecution?” “What a unfortunate is this! They are not Pakistanis and so they are not accepted by the Pakistan Government. But by all legal standards they are Burmese citizens entitled to all rights and protections guar-anteed by the constitution of Burma. Inspite of this they are unwanted by their own Government. If so, where shall they go arid who will give them asylum? It is very unfortunate that instead of getting any remedies the culprits and the violators of law are encouraged and rewarded.
Through out their Parliamentary tenure Ra-Ta-Nya (Rakhine Maghs’ Party) members acted in an unfriendly manner against the Rohingyas. They branded Rohingyas as “Kalas” or Chittgoniany and did not recognise Rohingyas as their equals. After winning 1960 General Election Govt. of Prime Mininster U Nu declared to set up a special “Mayu Frontier Admisnistration” (MFA) in the provinces of Maungdaw, Buthidaung and western portion of Rathedaung under direct control of Central Govt. It would be administered by Army officers. However the new arrangement earned the agreement of the Rohingya leaders. The actual implementation of the administration took place with effect from March 31, 1961. The Govt. recognised Rohingya as an indigenous race of Burma. A special police force known as “Mayu ye” was rised with recruits from local Rohingya Muslims and the law and order situation strated to improve. Since Govt. of Burma resolved and recognized Rohingyas as one of the indiginous races of Burma, 1st batch of 290 Rohingya armed Mujahadeen surrendered on July 4, 1961 at Maungdaw and another 2nd batch of more than 200 armed Mujahadden surrendered on November 15, 1961. Chapter VIII THE EMERGENCE OF ETHNIC KAMANS Besides Arabs and Pathans there were also Kaman archers, the followers of Moghul Prince Shah Shuja. The descendants of Shah Shuja’s Kaman archers are still survive in Arakan among the Rohingyas with their special name “Ethnic Kamans” in Arakan. Kaman is a Persian word means a bow. They speak Rakhine Magh language but retaing their Mohammedan faith and Afghan features. The Kamans, units of Muslim Archer servicing the king of Arakan, got the upper hand and continually reinforced by new forces from Upper India. From 1690 to 1710 AD. (for 20-years) the political rule of Arakan was completely in their hands. They were the king makers of Arakan. They used to roam to over the country carrying fire and sword, wherever they went. If a Kaman was angry in a Magh village, out of fear, all Magh villagers used to run away. So, there is a proverb among the Maghs. That is “In water the shark (is most dangerous) and on land the Kaman is”: In 1710 AD. Maha Danbado defeated the Kaman and ascended the throne with the title of SandaWizaya( 1710-1731). He deported the Kaman archers to Thayagon, Thinganet, Thakeybin, Rambree and Sandaway and the cavalry forces of Muslim Pathans were deported to the Northern border areas of Maungdaw, Buthidaung and Rathedaung and Kyauktaw and Minbya. The Kaman women are very industrious. They ran business from vegetable to cloth in Akyab, Rambree and Sandaway. But Kaman males are lazy. Their culture, dress, tradition, every thing is
like Maghs except their religion, Islam. Inter-marriage between Kaman and Rohingya is common. Their children become Kamans if they are grown among Kamans, and they become Rohingya if they are grown among Rohingyas. Such people are commonly found in Akyab District. If a Kaman is asked why they are called Kaman they would proudly reply that their ancestors were archers of Mughal and Rakhine kings. Though Kamans are educated Muslims, their spirit of Islam is weak. Moreover, they are influenced by Buddhist culture as they live mixing with the Buddhist people. Therefore, the Kamans of Laydaung, Sanne and Kyauktaw professed Buddhism according to M. K. Rahman’s Tarik-i-Islam Arakan and Burma (Urdu version), which make (the author) very sorry. It was indeed the weakness of Rohingyas and Kamans. To control and hinder from such occurence is the duty of Rohingyas and Kamans. Negligence to it would lead to the. disapperance of their people. Chapter XI CONCLUSION The Rohingyas are an ethno-racial group developed from different stocks of people. They trace their ancestry to Arabs, Moors, Turks, Moghuls, Bengalees and some Indo-Mongoloid people. The first group to leave its mark upon the culture and civilization of Arakan were the Arabs who carried out trade and propagation of Islam while settling down permanently in the coastal areas. The descendants of the mixed marriges between the local people and Arabs founded the original nucleus of the Rohingyas in Arakan. The Muslim settlements in Arakan dated back to 7th century A.D. The Buddhists of Arakan, the other major ethnic community, known as Maghs or Rakhine are a mix-blooded race descended from Indo-Aryans of Maghada, Mongolians and TibetoBurmans. Until 1942, all those in Arakan – the Rakhine Buddhists and the Rohingya Muslims lived in full harmony and amity. But in early 1942, an ultra – conservative section of the Rokhine Buddhist undertook a sort of campaign to keep the Arakanese Rohingya Muslims under subjections, massacred about 1,00,000 Rohingya Muslims and causing as many as 80,000 Rohingya Muslims to flee from Arakan and to take shelter in the then East Bengal (now Bangladesh). Since 1948, up to 1992, there have been no less than 19 major “operations” or eviction campaigns against the Rohingyas carried out the Government of Burma. The largest and probably the best documented “operation” was the so-called King Dragon operation of 1978. Between 24 April and 25 July 1978 more than 250.000 Rohingyas fled into Bangladesh as refugees. The 1991-92 campaign known as Pay Saya, which was launched on 18 July 1991,the refugee figure is little over (2,68.887) “that of 1978 and the causes of the influx are not much different. There was a presence of Rohingyas in practically every place of Arakan. Due to massacre of about 100,000 Rohingya Muslims in 1942 and continued persecution against them some areas in South Arakan have been turned into non-Muslim territory. At present the largest concentration of the Rohingyas is in North Arakan, particularly the territory between the East Bank region of the river Kaladan, the longest river in Arakan, and the river Naf which demarcates the boundary
between Bangladesh and Burma, where they still constitute 70 to 80 percent population of the region. There are also Muslim pockets in South Arakan such as Chaduba, Kyauk Pyu, Kyauk-nimaw and Sandoway. The Rohingyas are, by all legal standards, nationals as well as an indigenous ethnic group of the Union of Burma. They had been recognized as such by the previous elected governments with members in parliament and cabinet having a programm as an indigenous people in the official Burma Broadcasting Service (BSS) and participation in official “Union Day” celebration of Burma’s racial groups in the Burmese capital every year. The former Prime Ministers of Burma, U Nu and U Ba Swe stated, “the Rohingyas are people of Arakan. who profess the Islamic faith. The Rohingyas are equal in every way with other minority races like the Shan, Kachin, Karen, Kayah, Mon and Rakhine, They have lived in Burma for ages, according to historical facts. There is historical evidence that they have lived faithfully and harmoniously with other races of the Union”. To reject all previous records and refusal to accept the Rohingyas as Burmese nationals is blatant lies. But, their history, civilization and the elected government’s statements unambiguously and unequivocally make it evident that: (a) The arrival and settlements of the Rohingyas in Arakan have predated the arrival and settlements of many other people and races inhabiting Arakan and Burma. (b) The Rohingyas are nationals of Arakan and constitute one of the many indigenous races of Burma like the Shan, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni etc. now inhabiting Arakan and other parts of Burma. (c) By history, by tradition, by culture and civilization, the Rohingyas are as much citizens of Burma as anyone else in the country. The conclusion is drawn with prayer to the Almighty Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, to perpetuate Rohingya and Kaman. Ameen! AUTHORITIES AND BOOKS CONSULTED 1) Mannan Razawin Dawkyi (in Burmese)/ the Glass Place Chronicle. 2) Burmese History for Schools (in Burmese) by U Ba Thant. 3) New Burmese History for Schools (in Burmese) by U Ohan Maung. 4) Rakhine Razawin (in Burmes) bv U Aung Tha Oo. 5) Dayawadi Razawin-Thit (in Burmesa) by Sayadaw U Yana.
6) The Essential History of Burma (in Burmese) by U Kyi. 7) The History of Burmese Muslims (in Burmese) by U Mya-I. History of Burma by G. E. Harvey. 9) Burma from the Earliest Times to the Present Day by J. G. Scott. 10) A Short History of Burma by S. W. Cocks. 11) Burma by D. G. E. Hall. 12) Old Burma compiled and edited by U Myo Min. 13) Burma Gazetteer : Akyab District compiled by R. B. Smart. 14) Burmese Outpost by Anthony Irwin. 15) Europe and Burma by D.G.E. Hall. 16) A Short History of South-East Asia by D.G.E.Hall. 17) History of Aurangzeb by Jadunath Sarkar. 18) Tarik-i-Islam Arakan and Burma (in Urdu) by M. K. Rahman. 19) The Cultural Heritage of Pakistan Edited by S. M. Ikram. 20) History of Islam by Mufti Shaukat Alt Fahni. 21) A History of India by Sir Denber. 22) History of Burma by Sir Arthur Phayre. 23) Akbar the Great Moghul by V. A. Smith. 24) Burma Past and Present by Albert Fytch. 25) Union Citiznship Act. 1948. 26) The Guadian Magazine: September 1959, May 1960, October 1960 & February 1961. 27) Gaba-Alin Magazine Vol: 76-80. 28) The Burma Immigration (Emergency Provision) Act. 1947.
29) Bengali Literature in the Court of Arakan.1600-1700 A.D., Calcutta. 1935. 30) A Descptive Catalogue of Bengali Manuscripts, Dacca, 1960. 31) Journal of the Asiatic Society of Pakistan, Vol. XI, No-2, Dacca. 32) The District Gazetteer of Chittagong by L.S.S.O’Malley, I.C.S. in 1908.1

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:tyTA59TMuc0J:www.scribd.com/doc/16041503/A-Short-History-of-Rohingya-by-U-Ba-Tha+Rohingya,+Arkan+,map&cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&client=gmail